EFLIS Newsletter

EFLIS News, Volume 4:2 (November 2004)

by User Not Found | 11/08/2011

EFLIS News

In This Issue...

  • Articles and Information
    • From the Coeditors
    • Responding to Job Competition from Native English Speakers
    • Thoughts about EFL Teaching
    • From the E-list: EFL Members' Thoughts on Social Responsibility
    • Spice Up Your Classes With Haiku
    • About This Member Community

Articles and Information

From the Coeditors

Once again, here are some articles written by members of our EFL IS. You'll also see information on our e-list, which is quite lively! This issue is rather short as not many people have contributed lately--we expect a 'juicier' issue next time. See our 'Article Submission Guidelines' for what you need to do to have something published here. Hope you're having a good school year!

Leslie and Marina

Guidelines for Submitting Articles to the EFL-IS Newsletter

The EFL-IS Newsletter is published twice a year and distributed to all EFL-IS members.

Length: 500-1500 words, with a limit of 2-3 citations. Many articles do not have citations.

Topics: Articles are accepted on a variety of topics of interest to our EFL members. Topics can range from specific classroom action research, to successful classroom techniques and practices, to a description of teaching conditions in a specific country or region, to conference reports, conference papers, or book reviews.

Format: You can submit the article on e-mail or on hard copy (see address below). Please also include your school affiliation and e-mail address.

Send your article to:

Leslie Bobb Wolff (E-mail: lbobb@ull.es)
EFL-IS Newsletter Editor
Facultad de Filología
Campus de Guajara
Universidad de La Laguna
38071 La Laguna
Tenerife, Spain


Responding to Job Competition from Native English Speakers

By Irma Ghosn, Lebanese American University, Byblos, Lebanon; Marcia Fisk Ong, EFL consultant, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; Gary Butzbach, American Language Center, Rabat, Morocco; Teri Abelaira, ICANA (Binational Center in Buenos Aires); and Adelaide Parsons, Christian Educators in TESOL Caucus & Southeast Missouri State University.

The 2004 EFLIS Academic Session, Responding to Job Competition from Native Speakers, was lead by Irma Ghosn, who introduced the speakers and facilitated a lively question and answer discussion after the presentations.

Marcia Fisk Ong substantiated the claims that native English speakers (NES) are a threat to the livelihoods of local teachers of English. Her research revealed four reasons why NNES face competition from untrained NES: the business practices of language schools; the need for pocket money by adventurers; the use of gap-year and un(der)trained NESs as instructors; and evangelists with a (sometime hidden) religious agenda. Marcia presented a number of excerpts from publicly available advertisements, articles in newspapers and Web sites such as, http://www.virtualtourist.com/, orhttp://www.eslworldwide.com/, or http://education.guardian.co.uk/ to illustrate the problem.

First, Marcia discussed that language schools often hire undocumented NES instructors because of the benefits to themselves such as cachet, and no payment of social benefits, or insurance. A number of these undocumented NES instructors are simply adventurers or professionally uncommitted travelers who want to see the world inexpensively. They are not career oriented and have little or no training. But, Ministries of Education often contract these adventurers as well as "gap year" and other NESs as teaching assistants. This may reduce the impetus to improve local teacher education and send an unintended message with negative consequences to NNES teachers. In addition, she found that some evangelists offer language lessons at no cost with the hope of gaining converts. They sometimes even disguise their actual missions. Some enter the field of English teaching with a certificate from a training course as short as three days.

Gary Butzbach spoke about the EFL employment situation in Morocco. In Morocco, English is the key to the future. Everyone wants to learn English. French is the second language after Arabic and English is now the third language, having replaced Spanish in the last few years. In his center Gary employs about 60 trained teachers, 30 nonnative speakers (NNES) and 30 native (NES). It is true that sometimes he employs some nontrained native speakers, but they often help the more traditional trained NNES adjust to using the communicative approach. Because Gary's institute is self-funded, it must be sensitive to the desires of the client who often desires interaction with an NES. There are about 15 other institutes in Rabat such as the British Council and Amideast, which compete with Gary's institute for customers.

The local nationals are very fine teachers and some students are realizing the qualities special to NES and NNES. Therefore, Gary feels it is important to hire a staff that is split 50/50 between NES and NNES. The local nationals have a real, profound expertise in the English language that is close to native. However, they might not be able to answer some cultural questions students might ask like what is a county, how is New York different from Alaska, or what kind of religion is the Baptist religion. The NES can help the NNES explain concepts like regionalism or reference that managing the educational system is a state right and responsibility and not a federal right and responsibility.

The native speaker, on the other hand, did not learn but acquired the past perfect and the past perfect continuous tenses and relies on the nonnative speaker to help explain the times when each tense is used. The exchange between the NES and the NNES is a source of growth for both and leads to lively discussion in the faculty room. These discussions have evolved into a series of in-house workshops twice a week at lunch all year long. Some topics covered this year follow: Reported Speech, The Student-centered Classroom, Teaching not Coaching to Pass the Exam, and Recycling Vocabulary.

In Morocco, teacher training in the university includes linguistics, culture, and literature, but not methodology. Once in the classroom teachers often fall back on the way they were taught, which is the traditional lecture approach. However, news of the quality of these workshops spread and a university professor came to attend a workshop by one of her former student teachers. The professor learned about methodology, something commonly unheard of in this traditional society.

Teri Abelaira, who works at the Buenos Aires Bi-National Center, has been teaching EFL classes in Argentina for over twenty years. She has a BA in English Teaching from the Universidad del Salvador in Buenos Aires, Argentina. She attended classes in the USA 20 years ago, when she attended a 6-week TESOL summer institute. Teri stated that her contribution to the Academic Session is a result interviews with EFL teachers and administrators, and reflects their views as well as her own on the subject.

First, Teri explained that Argentina is the second largest country in South America, with a population of 36,000,000, half of which live in or near the city of Buenos Aires. EFL classes play an important role in Argentine education; achieving competence in English is considered a relevant component of a good education. EFL is taught in schools, private institutes, corporations and universities.

EFL is a compulsory subject in primary and secondary public and private schools. However, the general belief is that the time devoted to EFL classes (around three 45-minute periods a week) in schools is not enough to prepare children to participate in a global economy, and to succeed in a highly competitive market in a country with a high unemployment rate. Many parents send their children to bilingual schools, where content areas are taught both in English and in Spanish. Some of the families who cannot afford bilingual schools resort to private institutes that teach EFL or semi-bilingual schools, with a regular curriculum in Spanish and a daily, intensive EFL instruction.

Most of the instructors in bilingual and semi-bilingual schools are Argentine. In bilingual schools some of the instructors are native speakers of English. All the instructors have certification to teach within the area they are in charge of. In semi-bilingual schools there are almost no native speakers of English working as EFL teachers although no certification is required. In the past, there were a few native speakers teaching EFL in semi-bilingual schools. However, working in a school implies having additional duties such as parent-teacher meetings, and report cards which many uncertified teachers do not want to perform. Terri notes that in 2001 there was an economic crisis in Argentina, and since that time many native English speaking teachers have not found Argentine working conditions convenient.

Throughout the country there are many private institutes that teach EFL to all age groups and levels. Children, teenagers and adults are enrolled in a group or individual program offered by private institutes one to five times per week. It is in the context of private institutes and classes that native speakers of English used to find a substantial source of income. In the '80's many people enrolled in EFL classes in Argentina and a significant number of them wanted to have native speakers of English as teachers. The reason given for this is that native speakers were considered to be "the latest software" because they used authentic language and they had first-hand knowledge of the culture.

In the context of corporations and businesses, people in management positions take private or small group classes within their company. A few years ago, it used to be considered "trendy/prestigious" to have a native speaker as a private EFL instructor. Top executives, especially those with a high level of proficiency in English wanted their teachers to be native speakers. Also, in the past many wealthy Argentineans hired English-speaking nannies. For all of these reasons, native speakers found it easy to be hired even though they did not have either TEFL certification or work-visas. The native speakers' salaries were significantly higher than the salaries Argentine teachers earned.

The situation has changed in the last decade. No longer are native speakers perceived to know best. Additionally, native speakers are not seen as the sole authority in specialized areas. The professionalism of Argentine EFL teachers has been the driving force in this change. Argentine students have realized that NN certified teachers are effective in helping them accomplish their goal of learning EFL and are more likely to guarantee success.

Over the years Argentine students have become aware of the importance of teacher education and of the commitment that certified EFL teachers have. This is a result of two main factors:

First, Teacher Training Colleges (TTCs) in Argentina have very high educational expectations for their graduates. Acceptance into the TTC requires having high English proficiency as shown on an entrance examination. The programs TTCs offer are four years, nine months per year. Students attend forty different courses for approximately a total of 3600 hours of classroom time. All the courses are taught in English. In addition to taking courses, students devote the last year to EFL classroom observation and practice teaching.

A second, and most important factor comes from the teachers themselves. Argentine teachers are very committed to their work. They devote countless hours to class preparation, and try to make their instruction personalized and relevant. Moreover, they take advantage of every opportunity to grow personally and professionally by attending training workshops, seminars and conventions that are organized in and outside Argentina. Being a non-native speaker of the language, the Argentine teachers have to work twice as hard in comparison to native speakers of the language, which makes them more likely to succeed and excel in their chosen profession. Many Argentine EFL instructors take an active part in professional organizations such as TESOL, Argentina TESOL and similar Argentine professional associations to improve the country's EFL education.

Over the years, Terri has had the opportunity to sit in on hundreds of dedicated teachers' classrooms throughout Argentina. Terri and her colleagues have observed the following factors:

  • EFL learning in Argentina is greater when students are in a class with a certified non-native speaker than with a backpacker teacher.
  • The classes in charge of Argentine teachers are better prepared and the topics are more relevant to the students.
  • Argentine EFL teachers succeed in their teaching even without the benefit of technology or infrastructure.
  • There is great teamwork among classroom teachers (Even outside professionals have commented on this point.)
  • What can TESOL do for EFL teachers in Argentina and for EFL in general? Terri suggests:
  • Encourage the trend away from the native speaker versus the non-native speaker dichotomy.
  • Focus on countries such as her own that are struggling against the current worldwide economic situation.
  • Encourage the NNES caucus
  • Offer special rates not only for membership but also for publications, materials and convention fees so that more EFL, especially Argentine teachers, can have access to TESOL professional speakers and materials.

Certified Argentine teachers are highly regarded as knowledgeable and professional. EFL professionals are very dedicated and committed. Therefore, whenever Terri is asked what she does for a living, she cannot help but answer with great pride that, "I am an EFL teacher."

Adelaide Parsons represented the Christian Educators in TESOL Caucus. She reported that the Caucus has had an ongoing discussion of appropriate training for people in the mission field who are teaching English as either a paid teacher or a volunteer. Caucus members are deeply committed to professional training for English teachers. Reference was made to such TESOL professionals as Wes Eby, Don Snow, and Tom Scovel. The Christian mission is not served when the person standing in the front of a classroom has neither training in teaching nor an understanding of the culture in which they are teaching. Quality teachers use their experience and training to grow. If the purpose of the lesson, the class or the program is to learn English, then the lesson, the class, or the program should be about teaching English and not about teaching the Bible. If the purpose is to teach the Bible and people come expecting lessons on the Bible, then using Bible as content is appropriate. A Christian bears witness in relationship with others and by respecting one another's culture. Non-native English speakers are viewed as equals to the native speakers in the teaching of English.

From her experience with the TESOL Employment Clearinghouse, Parsons reported the following observations. First, before applying for a position, the applicant needs to know the employer, how to present her or himself, and how to bring her or himself forward in a professional and appropriate manner. These are skills that a nonnative speaker might not be familiar with and, therefore, might need to practice. To perform these skills well an interviewee needs to focus on his/her assets, using examples of how his/her non-native skills are useful to the employer. Preparing a statement of philosophy or introducing curriculum or lesson plans that the interviewee has developed are ways to bring talents forward during the interview process. Finally, an institution has an ethical responsibility to help graduates find employment in these practical times and cannot be an ivory tower, isolated from the needs of their graduates.


Thoughts about EFL Teaching

By Orlando Rodriguez, e-mail orlandor@adinet.com.uy.

Teachers are, no doubt, the key figures in the EFL learning process. Their influence is fundamental to their student's progress or lack thereof. The fact that "to achieve the desired result in teaching English, i.e. guiding students to its successful learning/acquisition, teachers have to be aware of and adhere to certain essentials," is often ignored by many EFL teachers. They also need to take crucial factors, such as classroom atmosphere into account. These issues are the central focus of this introspective piece of writing.

What are the Essential Qualities for an EFL Teacher?

Being skilled at using the target language is definitely not sufficient for English teachers, nor is the fact that they must be able to use appropriate teaching techniques. Techniques are methods of teaching that necessarily include classroom behavior or classroom activities and procedures, which employ specific strategies selected by the teachers to achieve their objectives after planning. Although language competency and teaching techniques go hand in hand in enhancing teacher effectiveness in the classroom, that's not always enough. Yet, many times skill/mastery is the only criterion used to select candidates for teaching English. My observation is based on the personal and perhaps controversial belief that there's definitively no significant correlation between a teacher's own language competency and the language achievement of his/her students. On the contrary, besides having an appropriate knowledge of the language, and being familiar with and able to adapt and employ a variety of teaching techniques, English teachers must have, among other capabilities, a positive attitude.

The attitude of the teacher also influences student success. A positive attitude in the classroom is essential. Teachers need to be and feel confident that their students are capable of learning the target language. If, for example, a teacher assumes that half of the class is incapable of acquiring a passive voice/the subjunctive for any reason, and looks down on them, students will not learn the grammatical form. Moreover, through a constant positive attitude, teachers are able to pass on to their students the concept that with a positive attitude and through hard work any personal goal can be achieved. Thus, teachers would be extending their teaching beyond their classrooms, and be teaching "for life."

Remember, to teach is to touch a life forever. We may come to the conclusion that teachers, within the boundaries of their classrooms, and through their attitude/approach to teaching, can foster or hamper, not only successful language acquisition, but also prepare, their students for the biggest challenge of all: life. Teachers should always keep in mind that they are, besides teaching another language, teaching and assessing their students' potential for the real test of life. We are skill-seekers and skill-developers. Teachers within the boundaries of the classroom are also social actors, a role that shouldn't be ignored.

The ability to design an effective lesson plan is also crucial to successful learning. Elements such as variety and novelty should also be considered in our planning to make classes appealing for our students. English teachers need to educate and train themselves on how to design an everyday plan that is tailored to reach the needs and abilities of their students.

Educational aims of the lesson must be clear, and activities should be selected to contribute to the realization of those aims. Lesson objectives should be stated in terms of what the student will be able to do as a result of that instruction, that is, according to student capability. These objectives must specify a goal in terms of student learning and skill. For example, that the students will be able to answer yes/no questions using the present progressive.

We Should Teach for Every Student's Mastery

Another vital method that every EFL teacher should consider is to organize his/her instruction so that all students are given equal opportunities to learn the content. Teaching for mastery therefore implies a creative and responsible use of a variety of styles. Since students learn in different ways, as a result of their learning styles and intelligence capacities, the strategic introduction of new and varied techniques may help students overcome a specific learning shortcoming. For instance, you may expect your class to master the use of the subjunctive; techniques must be utilized to reach the eye-minded, ear-minded student, and those who learn by developing their own generalizations. This approach should also bear in mind there should be activities that cater to the cognitive, affective and the kinesthetic domain of our students, as well. Likewise teachers must give a chance to and help the students who are hesitant to express themselves for fear of looking foolish, as well as those who are always eager to express themselves, and are often full of errors.

Classroom Management - How?

Teachers at all times must maximize available class time and maintain discipline. This must be in a close relation to ages of the students, the physical environment and the purpose of the instruction. For example, independent work, pair-work, small group conversations, interest group conversations and student-led drills will contribute to a smooth functioning of a class. We need to emphasize the too often ignored fact that when students are actively involved in a class which is set at their linguistic level and which takes into account their interests and backgrounds, they will at the same time, be so busy learning the language, that discipline will, to a large extent, take care of itself. Therefore, being able to handle and organize the classroom means a greater probability of success in implementing teaching plans, and achieving successful learning/acquisition thereof.

Classroom Atmosphere

Classrooms are extremely complex places with teachers making moment-by-moment decisions to translate their plans into action while they attempt to maintain a friendly, tolerant and constructive atmosphere. The fact is that, unlike other classrooms, students struggle to learn through a second/foreign language instead of their primary language. Students have to deal with reading, writing, listening, speaking and thinking, when possible, in a language other than their native tongue. And this is what makes the ESL/ EFL classroom so complex to manage, thus requiring special attention.

  • Friendly atmosphere - This must always be a major teacher's concern and characteristic of a classroom. Students need to feel that the teacher cares about what they are doing and going through, and that he/she is doing his/her best to help them learn effectively while developing their proficiency levels. Students definitely learn better when they are in a caring, welcoming, non-intimidating learning atmosphere. Students should be able to express themselves openly, without fear of embarrassment in front of their peers when corrected.
  • Tolerant atmosphere - Another crucial characteristic is tolerance. Students should feel that the class is a place where mistakes are tolerated, where teachers understand and make their students understand that, given the nature of the class, progress will be slow. That moving from one stage to another takes time and students should not be upset when making mistakes, making mistakes is part of the process of learning, Similarly, teachers should not be discouraged when their students do not use accurately what they have been teaching.
  • Constructive atmosphere - By providing challenging activities where students work hard and are provided with equal opportunities for using English, teachers will favor a place where students are encouraged to do more and use the language all the time. Students in the classroom need to feel encouraged to use what they have learned and to recognize their effort is valued. Class atmosphere is affected by the teacher's attitude and behavior. Teachers should make it clear that each individual member of the class deserves attention, whatever his/her level of achievement. Students should be equal in the eyes of the teacher and receive equal opportunity to participate and receive feedback on their performance.

By creating a class with such features, teachers will be favoring a resilient class, where students will feel they are the central concern in the process.

A last point, we should consider, related to the atmosphere of the English classroom is that activities should be designed to reflect the actual use of the language outside this somehow closed environment as much as possible. That is that students feel that the elements of language learned enable them to take the right action and use the appropriate responses in real conversational situations.

Conclusion

The complexity of the EFL/ ESL classroom requires a lot more than a qualified teacher who knows the rhetoric and holds a certificate. It requires even more than an adequate classroom environment. The EFL/ESL classroom requires quality people. It requires good example teachers, conscientious people who are aware of the vital role they play in the life of their students and the responsibilities that being an educator bring along. The chances of learning lost today, never come back. Adoption of some of the qualities discussed and establishment of the supportive environment described can greatly simplify this complexity, and thus enhance the English learning process. A successful classroom is the consequence of a qualified teacher, who exemplifies good values, aware of his/her role as an educator and skill developer, and who is capable of creating an appropriate classroom environment.


From the E-list: EFL Members' Thoughts on Social Responsibility

According to our interest section Chair, Jane Hoelker, the EFL IS e-list membership now totals 294! Our e-list manager, Orlando Rodríguez, encourages everyone to join and participate in one of the most enriching experiences he says he's ever had, the EFL-IS list. One of the recent topics on which ideas and thoughts were exchanged is that of social responsibilities of teachers. There has been a long and very interesting back-and-forth exchange of ideas on this topic.

If you are a TESOL member but aren't yet a member of the EFL IS e-list and wish to join the discussions held there, you can do so online athttp://www.tesol.org/getconnected or by e-mailing mailto:join-eflis-l@lists.tesol.org. You will receive in return a message telling you all about the electronic discussion list and how to participate.


Spice Up Your Classes With Haiku

By Orlando Rodriguez, e-mail orlandor@adinet.com.uy.

Having been an EFL teacher in Uruguay for 27 years now has given me the chance to see many different teaching trends and techniques, but I must confess, I have not often seen suggestions or ideas on using poetry in class. Moreover, I am sure that most teachers in many countries feel somewhat reluctant, when the time does come, to include poetry in their class planning. However, as in many other aspects of the English language teaching/learning process, we have often underestimated our students' capabilities, preventing them from using and writing poetry in our classes. We may have considered it to be too demanding for them, maybe too time-consuming, and not very profitable for our teaching purposes. However, from sixteenth century Japan to the present time we have a unique form of Japanese poetry available to us, haiku verses -- simple and easy to write, yet filled with emotion and educational. Haiku verses such as the following have become popular worldwide, spreading throughout the world, mainly during the past century.

Covered with the flowers,
Instantly I'd like to die
In this dream of ours. (1)

They have become one of the most popular forms of poetry today and an important manifestation of universal culture. Thousands of people publish outstanding examples of haiku in books and magazines devoted to this art in many countries (see references below). There are even worldwide contests for Haiku writers, the most remarkable being the "World Haiku Festival 2000," held in London, England. Haiku is said to be like a photo of some specific moment of nature or of an event in life, and it is said to be written to transcend the limitations imposed by normal language use and the linear/scientific thinking that treat nature and human beings as machines.

Traditionally and ideally, haiku presents a pair of contrasting images, one suggestive of time and place, the other a generally vivid but fleeting observation. Working together, the verses must register sensation, impression or a dramatic moment of a specific event or fact of nature. The poet does not comment on the connection, but rather leaves the relationship of the two images for the reader to determine.

Little butterflies -
Floating over the flowers,
Spring is beginning. (2)

What is Haiku in English?

Haiku is a brief poem with an oriental metric pattern that originated in the linked verse of 14th century Japan. This Japanese verse form, notable for its compression and suggestiveness is, in principle, a powerful tool to bring Emotional Intelligence Learning into the classroom, for it generally evokes certain moods and emotions. It consists of three unrhymed lines of five, seven and five syllables, although some flexibility regarding the number of syllables is accepted, particularly when translated into English.

Gold, brown and red leaves (5 syllables)
All twirling and scattering, (7 syllables)
As the children play. (5 syllables) (3)

It is contemplative poetry aiming to valorize nature, colors, seasons, contrasts and surprises. An old example of haiku, written by the poet Matsuo Bashô (1644-94), considered the finest writer of Japanese haiku during the formative years of the genre, reads:

Old pond …
a frog leaps in
water's sound. (4)

The Japanese cutting divides the Haiku into two parts, with a certain imaginative distance between the two sections, but the two sections must remain, to a degree, independent of each other. Both sections must enrich the understanding of the other. To make this cutting in English, either the first or the second line ends normally with a colon, long dash or ellipsis. Verses usually refer to nature and the seasons:

Summer school every day -
Walking, walking with hot sun ...
Melting ice-cream f-feeling. (5)

The main reason for bringing haiku verses into the classroom is that, as with other techniques, it favors Emotional Intelligence Learning as well as helping our students develop and discover their Naturalistic and Existential aspects. It is an effective and easy way for our students to connect with their memories, emotions and feelings from the past; feelings that they might have thought were lost. Students seem to enjoy recalling these feelings. We should be well aware of the relevant role Emotional Intelligence plays in the learning process and how it leads to successful learning when students are hooked emotionally to their learning environment. Teachers can use haikus, for they provide everything they need to bring emotions successfully into the classroom in a simple way.

Sunset: carrying
a red balloon, he looks back ...
a child leaves the zoo. (6)

Working With Haiku In The Classroom

You can teach your students how to write and share haiku verses in class by explaining the basic 3-line poem and the 5-7-5 syllable pattern, aiming at expressing events in their lives, the seasons or nature. Help them generate their own ideas by writing simple, line-by-line verses. Later, you can help them revise and polish their work, and move toward the depth that can make a poem memorable. Have your students share their verses, and help them understand they are taking a glimpse into other students' life moments. This will help the students understand how similar or different their perception of life can be. In this way students learn a little more about their classmates.

When commenting on the relevance of Haiku verses, leading authority, translator and poet William J. Higginson reflected: "The primary purpose of reading and writing haiku is sharing moments of our lives that have moved us, pieces of experience and perception that we offer or receive as gifts. At the deepest level, this is the one great purpose of all art, and specially of literature." (7)

Getting Started

As a warm-up activity, teachers can have their students brainstorm words, colors, objects, and things related to each season that come to their minds and write them on the board. These could even serve as a word bank for future reference.

At the same time, haiku is an interesting activity for pre-teaching syllable separation, which seems so difficult for the students to master.

Follow-up Activities

As a follow-up activity, teachers can have their students add additional creativity to their writing by having them illustrate their verses with an accompanying drawing or by designing borders related to the event described. Students can also come up with a simple title for the poem. As an alternative, suggest displaying the poems on boards in the classroom without a title, allowing the students to move around the class reading one another's haikus and to suggest a title on an adjoining piece of paper.

Haiku can also be used as a means of reviewing grammatical structures, for example, by using adjectives in the first line, verbs in the second, and a clause in the last line.

White, pink and bright clouds -
Floating, playing against the sky,
Autumn is beginning. (8)

Conclusion

When teachers succeed in creating a relaxed atmosphere in order to favor inward reflection, students find writing haikus relaxing and rewarding. The students are happy discovering their inner poet and they gain considerable self-confidence. So, regardless of the season, wherever you are, spice up your classes with haiku!

References

1. Japanese poet (Matsuo Bashô disciple)

2. Student sample from our classes.

3. O'Rourke, W.F. (1964) in Haiku in English. In H. G. Henderson (ed.) l967. 30. Charles E. Tuttle, Tokyo.

4. Source: Encyclopedia of World Biography, 2nd ed. 18 vols. Gale Research, 1998. "Old pond … ". is translated by William J. Higginson, copyright 1985, and used by permission.

5. Weiner, G. (1963) in Haiku in English. In H. G. Henderson (ed.) (1967) 41. Charles E. Tuttle, Tokyo.

6. Svendson, A. (2002). Season it with Haiku. TESOL Journal, 11, 38. TESOL, Inc. Alexandria, Virginia.

7.Higginson, William J. The Haiku Handbook: How to write, share and teach Haiku, with Penny Harter. McGraw-Hill/Kodansha International, 1989, Tokyo.

Higginson, William J. The Haiku Seasons: Poetry of the Natural World . Kodansha International, l996, Tokyo. Literary history, comparative literature.

Higginson, William J.. Haiku World: An International Poetry Almanac. (Kodansha International, l996, Tokyo. Anthology of 1.000 poems from 50 countries, with commentary.

"The Art of Haiku poetry" http://www.lsi.usp.br/usp/rod/poet/haiku.html Rodrigo A. Siqueira, Brazil.

8. O'Rourke, W.F. (1964) in Haiku in English. In H. G. Henderson (ed.) l967. 30. Charles E. Tuttle, Tokyo.

Svendson, A. (2002). Season it with Haiku. TESOL Journal, 11, 38. TESOL, Inc. Alexandria, Virginia.

"The Art of Haiku poetry" http://www.lsi.usp.br/usp/rod/poet/haiku.html Rodrigo A. Siqueira, Brasil.

Weiner, G. (1963) in Haiku in English. In H. G. Henderson (ed.) (1967) 41. Charles E. Tuttle, Tokyo.


About This Member Community

English as a Foreign Language (EFL) Interest Section

English as a Foreign Language facilitates idea exchanges on global and specific EFL/ESL issues, bringing together professionals who have had/intend to have EFL/ESL experiences in different countries, and provides an international network on teaching positions and professional interests worldwide.

EFLIS Leaders, 2003-2004

Chair: Jane Hoelker, jhoelker@qf.org.qa
Chair-elect: Ulrich Bliesener, u.blie@t-online.de
Coeditor: Leslie Bobb Wolff, lbobb@ull.es
Coeditor: Marina R. Gonzalez, minushki@yahoo.com

Discussion E-List: Visit http://lists.tesol.org/read/?forum=eflis-l if you are already subscribed to EFLIS-L, or visit http://www.tesol.org/getconnected/ to subscribe.