Volume 25:1 (February 2006)

by User Not Found | 10/20/2011
In This Issue...
  • Leadership Updates
    • Letter From the Chair
    • Convention Updates
    • The HEIS Web Site: New Look, New Location
  • Articles
    • Action Research for Preparing Reflective Language Teachers
    • Recycling Vocabulary in the Classroom
    • The Benefit of Codeswitching for L2 Learners: An Example from the Classroom
  • Reviews
    • Book Review: Developing Oral Skill
    • Book Review: A Thorough Review of English Grammar
    • Book Review: Exposing Students to the AWL
    • Website Review: Learning Vocabulary Can Be Fun
  • Announcements and Information
    • Helping ESL Students Achieve the Dream
    • Member Stories: Murat Turk, EFL Teacher in Istanbul, Turkey
  • About This Community
    • About This Community

Leadership Updates Letter From the Chair

Guy Kellogg, HEIS Chair 2005-2006, gkellogg@hawaii.edu

Greetings to all! As we get closer to the 40th Annual TESOL Convention and Exhibit in Tampa, Florida, it is time to think about planning. The convention is enormous, and can be overwhelming for some; take the time to preview the schedule of events online and note sessions that may be of interest to you both personally and professionally. You can get started with this by logging on at http://www.tesol.org. On the left navigation bar, under “Conferences and Events,” click on “The 40th annual . . .” You will find many useful links, including one to an online planner that can help you search and find sessions of interest to you.

Of particular interest to HEIS members will be the Academic Sessions and the InterSection. Discriminating readers will note the plural in “Academic Sessions.” This is the first year that TESOL is offering Interest Sections the opportunity to use two sessions in lieu of one. At the HEIS open planning meeting last year, we identified many topics of general interest to our members and narrowed them down to two: plagiarism and extensive reading.

Academic Session

Our primary Academic Session, on Thursday, March 16, 9:30-11:15 a.m., is a follow-up to last year’s focus on academic writing. Featured speakers include Joel Bloch and Gail Fensom, who will explore the concept of plagiarism as it relates to nonnative writers in higher education. Bloch’s focus will be on meaning construction through blogging and Fensom will focus on developmental approaches to plagiarism in college writing classes.

Our secondary Academic Session, on Thursday, March 16, 2:00-2:45 p.m., will feature Robert Waring and Brett Reynolds who will discuss what extensive reading is and why learners should read extensively. They will then show how extensive reading can be introduced into a higher education environment by giving examples of several model programs from around the world.


Each year, individual Interest Sections have the opportunity to get together and organize themselves around a common theme. This year, HEIS is proud to host an InterSection with the Bilingual Education Interest Section on Friday, March 17, 9:30-11:15 a.m. Our featured speakers are David Schwarzer, Mark Roberge, and Frank Noji, who will help us explore the crossroads of heritage language education and generation 1.5 learners. Research on generation 1.5 students has focused on needs and characteristics (Roberge, 2003), professional register (Noji, 2002), and affect (Goldschmidt & Miller, 2005). In heritage language education, Schwarzer (2003) found that validating the native language increases students’ motivation.

Goldschmidt, Myra M. and Christine Ziemba Miller. Beyond the Academic Needs of Generation 1.5  Research and Teaching in Developmental Education 21:2 (Spring 2005), pp. 10-19. 

Noji, F. (2002). Communication strategies for generation 1.5 students in the vocational area. CATESOL Journal, 14:1, pp. 235-248.

Schwarzer, D. (2003) A Qualitative Assessment of a Foreign Language Whole Language Classroom. Foreign Language Annals Vol. 36, No. 1 pp.77-85. 

Roberge, Mark (2003). Who Are Generation 1.5 Immigrant ESL Students and What Experiences, Characteristics and Needs Do They Bring to Our Classrooms?  CATESOL Journal 14:1, pp. 107-130.

HEIS’ e-Presence

HEIS is currently represented online in three distinct ways:

1)      TESOL’s Central Office maintains space at www.tesol.org for all Interest Sections. This space is uniform for all ISs and includes archives of the newsletter, governing rules, a statement of purpose, and a link to our e-list.

2)      HEIS also maintains its own website, currently managed by the very capable Ishbel Galloway, at http://www.sfu.ca/heis. Ishbel has worked to create a very clean, user-friendly space for us. I would like to invite all members to visit this site and provide feedback. It is, after all, a site for and by HEIS members!

3)      Finally, our e-list. Signing up is easy. Just point your browser to http://lists.tesol.org/read/all_forums/ and click “subscribe” to the HEIS forum. Click 'next' at the bottom of page or until you see "heis-l". Then, click "subscribe" on the line with "heis-l". If you have any trouble signing up you can contact our intrepid e-list manager, Yi Xu (xuyi@email.arizona.edu). Over the past 30 days, four messages have been posted to the list but 262 HEIS members are subscribed to this list.

Thank You to the Proposal Readers

This year HEIS received more than 250 proposals competing for approximately 53 slots at the convention. HEIS would like to warmly thank the many proposal readers who completed their reading assignments:

Julie Adler

Debra Basler

Henry Caballero

Deborah Crusan

Mary Jane Curry

Kristen di Gennaro

Beth Ernst

Sue Lantz Goldhaber

Kathryn Good

John Graney

Denis Hall

Patricia Ishill

Mark James

Sarah Jameson

Shaunna Joannidou

Ann Johnston

Jeffrey Kamm

Jessie Moore Kapper

Peggy Kazkaz

Guy Kellogg

Soonhyang Kim

Laura Kimoto

Mary Lynn Klingman

Ditlev Larsen

J. Leach 

Nereida Lima

Virginia MacDonald

Khayriniso Mamatkulova

Ann Martin

Mary Meinecke

Suzan Öniz

Deborah Osborne

Maria Parker

Aija Pocock

Joyce Podevyn

Robin Poling

Hana Prashker

Vesna Radanovic-Kocic

Laurel Reinking

Michelle Rossman

Marianne Santelli

Minerva Santos

Marti Sevier

Diane Silvers

Karen Stanley

Thomas Upton

Betsy Walter-Echols

Donald Weasenforth

Lisa Wilkinson

Molly Williams

Kelly Wonder

Qing Xing

In closing, I look forward to seeing you all at TESOL’s 40th Annual Convention and Exhibit in Tampa!




Convention Updates

Getting Involved With HEIS at the 2006 TESOL Convention

1. Search programs and events.

Visit http://www.tesol.org/planner for an overview of the convention’s online program planner. This link—http://tinyurl.com/9ucny—will take you directly to the advanced search of the online program planner. From here you can refine your search by first selecting ESL in Higher Education (under Interest Section) and then either view all sessions or subselect by session type, content area, and/or date.

2. Mark your calendars for the HEIS Academic Sessions and for the InterSection with the Bilingual Education IS. See the Letter from the Chair, Guy Kellogg, for details.

3. This year HEIS is offering nine discussion groups. As in past years, discussion groups were slotted on a first-come, first-served basis, with preference given to interesting proposals that were not accepted in other formats. We have discussion groups about speaking, listening, reading, writing, CALL, and professional development, covering topics to support English-language learners in both language and content classrooms in higher education. Most topics are applicable to higher education settings but some topics are devoted especially to community college or university settings.

4. Volunteer to staff the HEIS booth—a great place to sit, relax, and network.

Assistant Chair Alison Evans encourages everyone to consider volunteering some of your time to help out at the HEIS booth at TESOL, March 15-18, 2006. It's a great opportunity to meet colleagues from HEIS and other interest sections from all over the world, while giving your time and much-needed support.

The booth needs staff for these 90-minute time slots:

Wednesday, Thursday, Friday: 9-10:30, 10:30-12:00, 12:00-1:30, 1:30-3:00, and 3:00-4:30

Saturday: 9:00-10:30, 10:30-12:00, and 12:00-1:30

Please e-mail Alison at aevans@uoregon.edu with your day and time preferences.

5. HEIS Open Business Meeting: Networking Sessions and Planning for 2006-2007

Wednesday, March 15, 5:00-7:00 p.m. in Convention Center Room 38

As in past years, HEIS will use this meeting as a planning meeting and an opportunity to increase networking among members. Come meet colleagues with similar pedagogical and administrative interests, discuss issues, share best practices, and choose topics and foci for HEIS 2006-2007 projects and plans. Contact Guy Kellogg, HEIS chair for 2005-2006, at gkellogg@hawaii.edu if you have ideas to share but cannot attend the meeting or the convention.

The HEIS Web Site: New Look, New Location

The HEIS web page has moved.


Please bookmark our new location: http://www.sfu.ca/heis


Webmaster Ishbel Galloway is currently working on a new look for the HEIS web site. What roles the site should play for members and what information should we list? Be sure to check the site and e-mail Ishbel at igallowa@sfu.ca with any content suggestions. And be on the lookout for further announcements about the web site redesign on the HEIS E-list.


Articles Action Research for Preparing Reflective Language Teachers

Mary Jane Curry, mjcurry@its.rochester.edu

Preparing English language teachers should involve more than providing techniques, recipes, and tips. For teachers to develop their practice after finishing formal preparation, they must be able to question and improve their teaching practices in response to changing conditions and experiences (Richards & Lockhart, 1994). Not only can action research be integrated into teacher preparation programs so future teachers can try out teaching methods and approaches, but it is also a useful way for current teachers to investigate issues in their teaching.

At TESOL 2006, Kerrie Kephart from the University of Texas at El Paso and I will lead a Discussion Group entitled “Action Research for Preparing Reflective Language Teachers.” In this article I will give an overview of our discussion points and include examples of action research questions that my master’s students have investigated. The Warner Graduate School of Education curriculum integrates action research into the teaching methodology coursework of students in the TESOL/foreign language education program. Grounded in the Warner School’s social justice mission, our teacher education program requires students to design, implement, and evaluate an “innovative unit” drawing on the pedagogical and theoretical approaches they have studied. One aspect of the social justice mission is intentionally to prepare reflective teachers who craft their pedagogy from a student-centered, constructivist approach to teaching and learning. Students in the teacher education program are either preservice teachers doing an 8-week placement or in-service teachers using their own classrooms.

What is action research?

Action research consists of investigations initiated by teachers who want to improve their teaching practice by understanding it more fully. An action researcher may undertake a solo project in his or her classroom, or involve colleagues in investigating a question of shared interest. One principle of action research is that the end goal of any investigation of one’s teaching is change—which may lead to future investigations about the effects of such change. The action research cycle includes the crucial final step of making public one’s research findings so that others may benefit from new knowledge. The action research cycle consists of six steps, beginning with finding a starting point—identifying an issue, problem, or situation in one’s teaching to investigate. Looking at the teaching and research literature can also help us understand how others have approached the issue and provide ideas on how to investigate it.

A general format for an action research question might be: “What happens when I ______?” For example, my students have posed these questions: What happens when I create a unit to teach adult immigrants about nonstandard varieties of English? What happens when I use a computer-based mathematics game with my elementary ESOL students? What happens when I try out different types of responses to student writing? What happens when I set up cross-age tutoring between sixth graders and kindergartners? Clearly, similar questions can be asked in instructional contexts at all levels. In higher education settings, such questions might be: What happens when I use dialog journals in a writing class? What happens when I ask small groups to work collaboratively to investigate specific research topics? What happens when I use authentic materials, such as weblogs, websites, TV shows, and magazines, to ground instruction in popular culture?

The next step is to clarify the question. As a broad question may be difficult to answer, it is important to narrow and focus the question, linking it to specific methods of data collection. For example, a preservice teacher, Alexandra, who was interested in questions related to responding to student writing, first reviewed some of the literature on feedback to writing and then asked, “What happens when I respond in three different ways (direct correction of errors, circling errors without correcting them, and providing holistic feedback) to student writing?”

The third step is to define data collection contexts, timeframes, and methods (i.e., design the research project in advance). It is important systematically to collect data in multiple forms for the purposes of triangulation, that is, looking at the same phenomenon from different angles. Thus with Alexandra’s writing feedback question, she needed to specify in advance (for her unit/lesson planning) which writing assignments would receive which of the three types of feedback, how she would compare student responses to her feedback in subsequent drafts of their essays, and how she would elicit students’ opinions on the different types of feedback. Depending on the question, some data, such as scores on previously scheduled quizzes and tests, are naturally occurring. Other forms of data collection include diaries/journals (kept by teacher and/or students); talk-aloud protocols (having students describe their thoughts as they perform a task); observations (recorded by regular field notes made by another observer or the researcher); audiovisual taping; lists of student names to be checked off while students engage in particular tasks/activities; student interviews; pre- and poststudent questionnaires; and quasi-experiments (e.g., implementing an innovation in one class while teaching a similar class in the old way). In Alexandra’s action research project on writing feedback, she also had to decide what kind of coding scheme to use both for her feedback and for tracking students’ uptake of her feedback in their subsequent essay drafts.

The fourth step consists of analyzing the data by looking for changes from previous behaviors or practices (i.e., did the innovation yield any change?) or by identifying patterns or recurring themes. Research findings, such as changes in quiz/test scores as compared with a similar (“control”) class, may be quantifiable. However, action research more often tends to fall into the qualitative research paradigm, as many interesting and useful findings will result from the teacher researcher’s interpretations of his or her own and students’ experiences. Although analyzing qualitative action research data can be time consuming and subjective, it is useful in adapting instructional practices to specific groups of students, that is, more student-centered than quantitative approaches.

Fifth, action strategies should be developed on the basis of data analysis, then put into practice at the next feasible opportunity, at which point the effectiveness of new strategies can be investigated using the same research cycle. However, action researchers must be prepared to get unexpected or vague results from an investigation of a newly introduced change (or “innovation”). For example, in Alexandra’s case, none of the three approaches to giving feedback on student writing emerged as the most effective. However, her students liked the holistic responses better than line-by-line corrections or indications of where errors appeared in essays. Alexandra also felt that holistic feedback prompted good revisions in students’ subsequent drafts of their essays, but it was the most time-consuming of the three types of feedback for her to give. Her implementation of a change might therefore be to offer holistic feedback on some, but not all, student essays.

Finally, new knowledge becomes public when it is presented to students and local colleagues; at conferences; and in newsletters, professional development workshops, journals, and so on. Alexandra and several of her classmates in the course presented their action research projects at a local English language learner conference; TESOL and its state affiliates are other obvious places to present the findings of action research projects.

Ethical Considerations

It is crucial to abide by certain ethical tenets while conducting action research. The researcher should keep in mind the power relations existing in the classroom and avoid abusing one’s authority as a teacher for the sake of investigating an interesting question. To this end, students should not be asked to engage in activities that do not help them or are not part of a legitimate curriculum. If students are asked to do additional work or give out personal information, it should be optional. Students’ information should be confidential: published or reported discussions of the research should use pseudonyms for students and possibly the institution. Also, most K-12 schools and many higher education institutions have strict rules about getting permission from students or their families if the research design goes beyond instructional variation. It may be wise (or required) to have students sign permission forms that explain the research question and project and note that findings may be disseminated publicly. It is important to make plans for the research well in advance, inform participants and others who need to know or approve the project, stick to the arrangements that have been made, and verify findings (interpretations) with participants, if appropriate—their responses can also be data. Last but not least, thanking everyone who has participated and helped and sending copies of one’s research findings, if appropriate, are important courtesies.

In preparing my students to do action research, I hope to provide them with a professional development resource that will serve them throughout their careers. Some students have kept their investigations going as they continue to teach reflectively. The principles of action research allow teachers at any level to undertake small-scale but often highly effective research projects that will enable them to improve their teaching practice indefinitely.


Richards, J. C., & C. Lockhart. (1994). Reflective teaching in second language classrooms. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Other Resources

Altrichter, H., P. Posch, & B. Somekh. (1993). Teachers investigate their work: An introduction to the methods of action research. London: Routledge.

Burns, A. (1997, Autumn). Valuing diversity: Action researching disparate learner groups. TESOL Journal, 6-10.

Chamot, A. U. (1995, March). The teacher’s voice: Action research in your classroom. ERIC/CLL News Bulletin 18(2), 1, 5-8.

Schmuck, R. (2006). Practical action research for change. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press. 2nd ed.

Wallace, M. (1998). Action research for language teachers. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Mary Jane Curry is assistant professor of foreign language/TESOL education at the University of Rochester. Coauthor of Teaching Academic Writing: A Toolkit for Higher Education (2003), she has also published on access and second language literacy in Community College Review, Literacy and Numeracy Studies, Studies in the Education of Adults, TESOL Quarterly, and Written Communication.

Recycling Vocabulary in the Classroom

Gerry Luton, gluton@uvic.ca


In Vocabulary Myths, Keith Folse noted that "[ESL students] see acquisition of vocabulary as their greatest source of problems. . . . [However], vocabulary is not dealt with sufficiently. . . . Some teachers cover some vocabulary, but this is hardly ever done very systematically. Vocabulary is something that everyone assumes that learners will somehow pick up" (Folse, 2004).

The major principles that guide my systematic approach to teaching vocabulary include (a) focusing on multiple examples of vocabulary in context to introduce students to the broad range of meanings and the various aspects of knowing a word and its derivations, and (b) using the vocabulary in meaningful speaking and writing activities.

In my class, vocabulary is recycled through exercises incorporating all four language skills. Up to 30 activities are used, requiring students to variously examine, describe, define, draw pictures of, listen to, pronounce, read, write, spell, act out, and ask people about the vocabulary under study. As a general guideline, exercises increase in complexity as we move from those involving receptive generative processing (completing gap-fills) to those involving productive generative processing (writing, and finally speaking). A representative sample describing the principal techniques and a rationale for their use is outlined below.

Multiple Contexts—Range of Usage & Various Aspects of Knowing a Word

Schmitt and Carter (2000) have noted that "Learners need to meet words in a wide variety of contexts in order to gain an appreciation of the true range of a word's usage." Paul Nation writes that exposing students to multiple contexts also provides "rich information on a variety of aspects of knowing a word including collocates, grammatical patterns, word family members, related meanings, and homonyms" (Nation, 2001). Students in my classes encounter this range of usage for vocabulary under study through a series of exercises consisting of gap-fill sentences in context. Consider the following:

A newspaper article has been studied in class. The word stab appeared in the following sentence:

The victim was stabbed in the stomach with a kitchen knife.

Here stab may be interpreted by the students as meaning to put a sharp implement into someone's body for the purpose of harming him or her. Students will subsequently see stab used in a similar context in one or two gap-fill exercises before the range of usage presented starts to expand, as illustrated by the sentences below. (Again, these sentences will appear in gap-fill exercises.)

The children were stabbing the grapes with a toothpick and popping them in their mouths.

Now the previous idea has grown to include putting a pointed object into something, not necessarily for the purpose of injuring it.

The politician shouted and stabbed his finger into the air.

Now the meaning has grown further to include thrusting something somewhat pointed into the air.

Her hurtful remarks stabbed him in the heart.

The meaning now includes the figurative sense of causing psychological pain, without the use of a concrete object.

These multiple contexts help to illustrate and reinforce information such as whether a verb is transitive or intransitive, whether a verb is followed by a gerund or infinitive, if a noun is count or noncount, and what prepositions generally accompany the word. Gap-fill exercises are assigned two to three times per week in various forms, including the following:

  • A multiword exercise with a number of sentences and words to choose from. See the gap-fill exercises created for the Academic Word List athttp://web.uvic.ca/~gluton/awl/AWLSublist05-Ex4a.htm.
  • Several different contexts for one word with different derivations. See an exercise from John Bunting's site athttp://www2.gsu.edu/~esljdb/awl/sublist1/wftheory.htm
  • Gap-fill sentences with a list of the words given in root form—a challenging variation. Students need to choose the correct word and supply the appropriate derivation: the noun, verb, adjective, or adverb form.
  •  Crossword puzzles with sentences in context rather than definitions as clues. Again, John Bunting's site offers a good example of a web-page crossword puzzle; visit http://www2.gsu.edu/~esljdb/awl/sublist1/random1cw1.htm
  •  Language-lab listening exercises requiring students to match a word to a context presented orally. For a detailed explanation, see the article "Reviewing/Reinforcing & Testing Vocabulary" at Marti Sevier's site at http://www.sfu.ca/%7Emsevier/tesol04.htm

Activities to Recycle Vocabulary Through Writing  

Paul Nation further noted that learners need to be encouraged—and have the opportunity—to use vocabulary in speaking and writing where their major focus is on communicating messages (Nation, 2001).

Written exercises used to recycle vocabulary include the following:

  • Guided stories: The teacher chooses words from the class list and describes a situation that the students must then relate in a story, news article, or conversation format.

Ex: Situation: A girl is being bothered by another child at school.

Vocabulary:  bully  deliberately  determined  fed up  irritate  mimic  relief  sensitive  shove  tease

Alternatively, students choose their own words from the class list and write a story or dialogue in which all the words are used. Once completed, the students circulate, reading or role-playing the different stories or dialogues to see how other students use the vocabulary.

  • Sentence races: Students are in groups of four to five. Each group lines up single file facing the blackboard. The teacher says a word and the student at the front of each line must run to the blackboard and use the word in a perfect sentence. When a group has a perfect sentence, the teacher says ¡°Stop.¡± If there is a mistake, the teacher may give clues, such as You have a problem with tense. Other students can help the person writing on the board. A challenging addition to this activity has the teacher saying two or three words, all of which must be put in the same sentence. In this case, there should be a logical and obvious connection between the words. This exercise allows the class to look at grammatical patterns that become more apparent once the students start actually using the words in sentences. Notes regarding this information can be listed at the side of the board to be quickly reviewed at the end of the activity.
  • Journal writing: Students are encouraged to underline new vocabulary they use in their journals and are given bonus marks for it. This is a very useful way of practicing vocabulary because the students choose a real, personal context for the words. Alternatively, the topic of the journal entry can be assigned, which provides the students with a framework that encourages them to use certain topic-related new vocabulary.
  • Making changes: These exercises require students to process vocabulary in various ways.

Ex 1: (contribution) A local businessman has contributed over a million dollars to be used in the construction of a new children's hospital in this city.

» Students must change the verb used in the sentence to the noun (such as . . . made a contribution of . . .)

Ex 2: (hop) There were various kinds of insects jumping around the grassy field where we were walking.

» Students must recognize which word has a similar meaning and substitute hop for the verb used in the sentence.

Ex 3: (occasion) My wife and I like to have the __________ glass of wine after supper.

» Students must change the form of the word given as needed for the sentence.

Ex 4: (available) You won't be able to move into the apartment until the beginning of next month.

» Students must rewrite the sentence to express the same idea, but use the word in parentheses.

Activities to Recycle Vocabulary Through Speaking

Speaking exercises used to recycle vocabulary include the following:

  • Quick discussions: Three-minute warm-up discussions require the students to use target vocabulary in a new and different way. Students are in pairs and change partners after each topic. Discussion types may include the following:

Experience What things have you found it difficult to adapt to in this culture?

Culture What is the most common symbol of your country, and what does it represent for you?

Opinion Is it okay for the police to use torture to get information from criminals?

Personal How do you expect learning English will be of benefit to you in your life?

  • Proverbs and quotations provide thought-provoking contexts for examination, discussion, and use of target vocabulary. Students can discuss the meaning of the quotation or proverb and whether or not they agree.

Ex: There is an African-American proverb which states that romance without finance don't stand a chance.

Ex: Martin Luther King, Jr., once said that hatred paralyzes life, whereas love releases it.

  • The old Find someone who . . . activity can be used to review vocabulary. The activity uses questions that use the vocabulary under review. This exercise is helpful in having the students relate the target vocabulary to themselves and their own experience. If someone answers yes to a question, he or she is encouraged to talk about it.

Ex: Find someone who has appeared on television.


It is important to recycle vocabulary continually throughout the session. Multiple contexts in the form of gap-fill exercises can provide information on range of meaning as well as grammatical patterns. It is also important to include practice with derivations. Learning is also enhanced when activities that require students to use target vocabulary in speaking and writing are included.


Folse, K. (2004). Vocabulary myths: Applying second language research to classroom teaching. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

Nation, P. (2001). Learning vocabulary in another language. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

Schmitt, N., & Carter, R. (2000). The lexical advantages of narrow reading for second language learners. TESOL Journal 9(1), 4-9.

Gerry Luton has been teaching ESL at the University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia, for over 15 years. He has a particular interest in vocabulary acquisition. This article is based on a presentation given at TESOL San Antonio in March 2005.

The Benefit of Codeswitching for L2 Learners: An Example from the Classroom

Murat Turk, turkmura@msu.edu  

“I can’t help thinking of the translation of what I read or hear in English—it is just out of my control.” —A former student of mine

From 2003 to 2005, I taught English for the YDS (Language Test of English) exam at a private language school in Turkey. All high school graduates must take this 100-question multiple-choice exam to be admitted to a language department in Turkish universities. It includes sentence-level and discourse-level vocabulary and grammar questions and reading comprehension questions in different formats.

Of particular interest for our topic here are the four Turkish-English and four English-Turkish translation questions. The former has one English sentence as the stem and five options for its Turkish translation. For the latter, there is one Turkish sentence as the stem and five options for its English translation. Although these translation questions may seem to require only translating from Turkish into English or vice versa, they actually require a good deal of reading comprehension as well. That is, the students first have to read and fully comprehend the message conveyed by the stem, then codeswitch from one language to the other and give the same message in the other language. Hence, they are in fact dealing with reading comprehension, which includes codeswitching as well. The presence of these translation questions thusautomatically obliged me to teach my students how to codeswitch.

It was during such a reading comprehension exercise that I witnessed a striking example of the benefit of codeswitching. I was teaching how they should handle the text before moving on to the comprehension questions, paying attention to reference markers, transitions and so on. One day, we were examining a passage about Thanksgiving Day. They read the whole passage and I realized that they had understood most of the text, as they were quite good at selecting the correct answers to the reading comprehension questions. However, there was still a question mark in their mind as to what Thanksgiving Day really was. I realized that they had necessarily failed to grasp the notion of Thanksgiving Day because they did not have any prior knowledge of it. At that particular moment I remembered one of the concepts I learned in my language acquisition class at university: script.

Script, according to Schank and Abelson (1977), is “a predetermined, stereotyped sequence of actions that defines a well-known situation.” For example, in our minds, a script for libraries tells us that they are places where one must be quiet and not talk loudly to other people. This information does not need to be provided in the text, as our mind automatically provides it. Some scripts are almost the same for all speakers of different languages, whereas others vary from one country to another. For example, in Turkish people’s minds, there is a script for hamam (Turkish baths) that specifies that they are places where you put on a sarong-like garment called apeþtemal and where a tellak scrubs you with a coarse cloth. None of this information has to be provided in the text for a Turkish reader, but it has to be supplied for foreign readers as they do not have such a script for hamam in their minds.

Thus, my students were not able to make out what Thanksgiving Day really meant because in their minds there was no previous background information as to why Americans celebrate that day, what they eat, how they act, and so on. The mental hindrance to their comprehension was directly related to the word thanksgiving. They made some guesses as to what it might mean in English. For example, they attempted to explain it using the word thanks. They thought that Americans have a special day and on that day they cook special foods, both of which are true. However, they also came up with the interesting—but not as accurate—idea that Americans primarily celebrate that day in order to thank each other for their hospitality.

However, when one of the students codeswitched and said, “I think Thanksgiving is a kind of bayram or kutlama (a public holiday or celebration), like our Kurban bayrami(Sacrifice Holiday); we kurban etmek (sacrifice) cows for Allah (God) and eat its meat with our family,” the entire class let out a loud “Oh, yes!” Just like Turkish muslims celebrate the survival of Hz.Ýsmail, the son of Hz.Ýbrahim, on Sacrifice Day, Americans celebrate the survival of early English travelers to America who nearly died of hunger. I was totally amazed because I witnessed an authentic case in which L1 translation via codeswitching provided the vocabulary and background information about the notion of Thanksgiving that a native speaker takes for granted.

We know that the comprehension of a text depends not only on its individual sentences but also on the background knowledge already available in the reader’s mind. My students read and understood every single sentence in the text, but they still failed to understand its meaning. Why? The answer is simple: They did not have any previously stored knowledge in their minds as to what Thanksgiving tradition is. In addition, as long as they were doing the reading comprehension activity individually, the only source of script and schema available to them was their experiences or general world knowledge, so the process was purely intrapersonal. However, when I led a postreading discussion about the text, that intrapersonal process turned into an interpersonal one in that the students exchanged ideas by uttering such sentences as “We celebrate a similar day in Turkey by eating meat” or “We come together as a family and eat cow meat on Sacrifice Day.” These utterances were crucial to their reading comprehension in that they filled in the missing parts in their schema and script. And interestingly, they used another skill, namely speaking, to achieve this.

Yet another interesting observation I made in this activity was about this interaction between reading and speaking. I observed that a productive language skill (speaking) affected a receptive language skill (reading) in a complementary manner despite so-called L1 “interference” through translation and codeswitching. In fact, this interference actually contributed to the students’ full comprehension of the text. In any such case, an L2 learner reading a passage in L2 can depend only on his or her own script (and that’s why my students failed when they individually tried to understand what Thanksgiving was), but in speaking, the L2 learner can make use of a partner’s script as well (and that’s why the whole class filled the gap in their comprehension when one of their peers codeswitched from English to Turkish and made an analogy between a Turkish and an American tradition).

I have been teaching English for the past 3 years and the entire L2 learning process and its unexpected occasions such as this one are always fascinating to me. Every time I witness such surprising cases in my classes, I feel the uncontrollable urge to update my definition of the L2 acquisition process. Here is the latest version of my definition:

“Second language learning is an amazing journey that leads you to waiting-to-be-opened doors of discovery of new tones of the same colors.”


Cook, V. (1996). Second Language Learning and Language Teaching (2nd ed., pp. 71-76). New York: Oxford University Press.

Schank, R., & Abelson, R. (1977). Scripts, Plans, Goals, and Understanding. New Jersey: Erlbaum.

Murat Turk worked at a private language school from 2003 to 2005, where he taught English for proficiency exams, including TOEFL. He was an editor of DILKOYDS Journal and is currently a language instructor at Yeditepe University, where he teaches courses in grammar, listening, writing, and reading. His research focus is second language acquisition.

Reviews Book Review: Developing Oral Skill

Ellen Measday, emeasday@comcast.net

Madden, C. G., and T. N. Rohlck. (2000). Discussion & Interaction in the Academic Community. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

In teaching an academic ESL discussion course, it is extremely challenging to convince students of the relationship of discussion to success in the academic arena. Here is an additional tool for the discussion instructor. Discussion & Interaction in the Academic Community offers a wide variety of activities to elicit appropriate oral production by nonnative speakers. It is designed with a lot of white space, so the text appears very approachable. Though there is no index, the table of contents is extremely detailed and makes it easy to locate particular functions. There is a logical progression from interacting on a less formal level to participating in a productive manner in the classroom and office, to presenting data to colleagues. Reproducible pages for homework and surveys are included. Many activities assume a small class size (12 or under); for example, some homework is audiotaped. Although these activities are labor-intensive for the instructor, taping does necessitate oral clarity and comprehensibility on the student’s part. Audiotaped homework aside, most activities can be adapted for use by larger classes. Occasionally, classwork or homework requires a skill not detailed in the preceding chapters; instructors must be prepared to teach skills, such as interrupting, before asking students to take part in these activities.

The text contains myriad examples from real newspapers, published research, and journals. Although some of these examples now seem outdated (for example, ETS exchanging paper and pencil for computer by the 1996-97 school year), they are nevertheless authentic and offer opportunities for discussion of changes occurring since publication of the text in 2000.

The book includes campus surveys that require oral interaction on the students’ part. It has become difficult to design verifiable activities that require speaking, since students can obtain information from the Internet without speaking to anyone. These surveys are one way Madden and Rohlck encourage interaction with other members of the campus community. The authors also point out how to take advantage of office hours and how to use appropriate language there. They discuss differences occurring in instructor/native-speaking student and instructor/nonnative-speaking student interactions. Other activities include planned presentations and class discussions with particular roles assigned to participants. Model interactions for clarification of appropriate feedback and learning how to keep a conversation going contrast native speaker/native speaker interactions with those of nonnative speaker/native speaker. These, among many models in the book, recognize the nonnative speaker’s desire for appropriate paradigms.

The unit on participation offers opportunities to both participate in and lead discussions, along with an explanation of their importance in academic success. Helpful appendixes include reproducible evaluation forms for use by the teacher and the student. Emphasis is placed on active listening as a necessary component of effective communication.

Throughout the text, the authors present appropriate vocabulary in several ways, including many useful phrases and idioms with multiple examples and opportunities to analyze their use and record other examples. Madden and Rohlck address collocation, with exercises involving semantic distinctions of synonyms commonly used in academia (e.g., comment, mention, discuss, talk, converse), and provide divided newspaper article titles to be matched as one engaging activity.

In most fields of study, understanding the presentation of numbers in data is required. The third unit of this text provides clear explication of various types of charts, graphs, and tables, and methods of orally presenting this kind of data, with appropriate and accurate vocabulary. Activities include oral presentations, asking and answering questions, summarizing, and paraphrasing. Another useful skill addressed is hedging, a technique frequently employed by Americans and frequently misunderstood by nonnative speakers.

Discussion & Interaction in the Academic Community offers the instructor and student a useful book of reasonable size for a one-semester course. It covers topics that are crucial to academic success but that are frequently missed by larger, broader texts. Mastery of the skills clearly laid out by Madden and Rohlck should lead students to much greater comfort and achievement in the academic environment.

Ellen Measday received a BA in French from George Washington University and an MA in linguistics with a specialty in ESL from the University of Oregon. She is an associate professor of ESL at Middlesex County College in Edison, New Jersey, where she teaches in all skill areas.

Book Review: A Thorough Review of English Grammar

Vesna Radanovic-Kocic, vkocic@njcu.edu

Raimes, A. How English Works: A Grammar Handbook With Readings. Cambridge,  England: Cambridge University Press, 1998.

How English Works is designed for intermediate and advanced learners of English. The book consists of two parts: the first part, containing 29 chapters, deal with grammar and style, and the second part contains 16 chapters with authentic readings and activities based on them. The book emphasizes reading and writing, with the main goal being grammar instruction, so it is clearly intended for learners who plan to enter a collegiate setting. The book is organized in such a way that the instructor has flexibility to use it either as a textbook for a grammar course or as a text for a reading and writing course, in which case the grammar chapters would be supplemental and their use would be determined by learners’ needs.

The grammar and style parts of the book cover all levels of English structure, beginning with basic sentence organization, question formation, and negation, and moving to noun phrases and verb phrases with modifiers and complements, including relevant morphological information (comparison of adjectives or inflection of verbs, for example), and finally, to larger units, such as complex sentences. Each chapter includes five sections: Read, Analyze, Study, Edit, and Write. 

Every chapter begins with Read, a reading passage (taken from one of the longer readings in the second part of the book) containing authentic use of the structure in focus. In the next step, Analyze, learners infer some generalizations regarding the structure in question. This section typically guides learners to underline the forms in question, organize them according to some given criteria, and occasionally generate a rule that can explain certain forms.

Next, Study provides students with explicit grammar explanations and exercises. I found this to be the most valuable part of the book, which presents relevant information very clearly, often with charts and tables. Though the explanations are general and do not overburden learners with too many details, they often include useful information on formal/informal usage. Moreover, in this section, the author often calls learners’ attention to forms that are frequently problematic because of L1 interference. In the accompanying Instructor’s Manual, the author makes the very useful suggestion to discuss possible sources of errors with learners and thus make them aware of their own errors and causes for them. Though most of the exercises in Study are for writing, an attempt is made to provide oral exercises as well, including some form of pair or group work.

The fourth section of each chapter, Edit, consists of writing samples produced by learners, with errors in the relevant grammatical area. Occasionally, an added Editing Advice calls attention to some typical problems in writing. The final section, Write, directs learners to write on the topic in order to elicit usage of the grammatical structure in question. 

The Reader includes 16 chapters, each with a glossed authentic reading, followed by two writing assignments and grammar references from the earlier chapters. The readings cover a wide range of topics and genres, are of various levels of difficulty, and are quite relevant and interesting. The topics range from soybean to portable computers, and the styles from fiction to scientific register, and many readings are written by well known authors, such as Nora Ephron, Anna Quindlen, and Steven Jay Gould.

How English Works is written with the most recent findings on grammar instruction in mind. Like most current approaches, it emphasizes the need for authentic input in grammar instruction, support developing activities in which learners are given an opportunity to infer rules on their own, and take into account the fact that acquisition is a long process and cannot be accomplished in a single lesson. What the book does not share with the most recent approaches is the communicative nature of the instruction. The author justifies the emphasis on writing and reading, stating that “How English Works is based on the premise that students can’t really work on improving their grammar while they are speaking. The nature of spoken communication simply does not leave room for extensive monitoring or for review of the language produced” (p. xi). Most of the research findings contradict this statement, as learners typically monitor their production no matter which of the four skills they are engaged in. In Krashen’s (1981) original formulation of the Monitor Hypothesis, for example, although he mentions only performance, he does not exclude any of the skills.

This book excels in providing the first step in the process of acquisition, raising awareness of forms, but lacks the opportunity to test hypotheses in natural communicative settings and to receive feedback, lowering the chances that learners will achieve necessary automatization and therefore fluency. Supplementation of communicative activities by the teacher can help learners develop these steps.

In conclusion, How English Works provides a thorough review of English grammar and, with possible supplementation from the teacher, is an excellent course text.


Krashen, S. D. 1981. Principles and Practice in Second Language Acquisition. English Language Teaching series. London: Prentice-Hall International (UK) Ltd.

Vesna Radanovic-Kocic teaches in the Department of Multicultural Education at New Jersey City University. Her research interests include second language acquisition, second language teaching, Slavic syntax, and sociolinguistics.

Book Review: Exposing Students to the AWL

Marti Sevier, msevier@sfu.edu

Schmitt, D., & N. Schmitt. Focus on Vocabulary: Mastering the Academic Word List. New York: Longman, 2005.

The past few years have seen a tremendous rise in the interest of teaching vocabulary in ESOL, and no wonder: After years in the doldrums, learning new words is now seen to be of central importance in language learning. Though reading has been described as the most efficient means of language input (Krashen, 1994), common sense dictates that it is hard to read if you don’t know the words. Indeed, Paribakht & Wesche (1998) view the learning of vocabulary and reading as interdependent. This view of interdependency is underscored by David Qian (1999), whose research demonstrates that vocabulary size is an accurate predictor of reading skills. However, vocabulary knowledge is complex: Without a wide knowledge of words, including pronunciation, forms, and collocation, learners will “fail to thrive” in their language development.

It is this very complexity of vocabulary knowledge that prompts further concerns. One such concern is the problem of choice: Which words does an instructor select for learners? Another concern is related to methodology: How important is context to vocabulary learning? How does one integrate vocabulary learning into one’s ESOL curriculum? Then, too, how many times do learners need to encounter and process a word before they learn it, that is, shift it from short-term to long-term memory?  

Written for learners of academic English, Focus on Vocabulary: Mastering the Academic Word List provides answers to many of these questions. Using the Academic Word List (AWL; for a complete discussion of the AWL and its rationale, see Coxhead, 2000) as a starting point, this 240-page book aims to provide a minimum of four exposures to each word on the 570-word list. 

Focus on Vocabulary is broken into six units, with 28 chapters; of these, 21 are based on readings taken from a broad range of academic course material. Before plunging directly into the units, however, both instructor and learner would be well advised to read the overviews. “To the Teacher” offers a clear and concise mini-course in vocabulary that explains the reasons for the approach taken in the book. “To the Student” takes EAP learners through the types of vocabulary knowledge that they will need in university courses (e.g., meaning, spelling, pronunciation, word families, collocation) and gives a detailed description of how students can use vocabulary cards to help them retain what they learn. A separate teacher’s manual, with practice tests and an answer key to the exercises, is also available.

Units are based on diverse topics, from sociology to business to biology to music. They are structured in a roughly similar manner, beginning with brief prereading discussion in “Getting Started,” moving to a knowledge-scale activity in which learners rate how well they know the 24 target vocabulary items in the reading, and then the reading itself, with the items highlighted in bold font. (Length varies, but they are usually around two pages long, approximately 1,200-1,500 words.) The readings are followed by comprehension questions and then sets of tasks that focus on meaning, form, and collocation. Concluding each reading unit is an expansion task—discussion questions that usually lead into writing. The fourth chapter in every unit is entitled “Strategy Practice” (there are three of these in all). Dictionary use is featured in each of these, but other types of word knowledge and learning tips are also covered.

The Strategy Practice chapters help learners to become more independent in their vocabulary acquisition. Each chapter begins with work on dictionary use. My own students are deeply attached to their expensive electronic dictionaries that frequently provide incorrect information and few, if any, sentence examples about words, but possess the advantage of portability. These chapters help students learn how to systematically navigate their dictionaries by asking questions on topics such as the use of abbreviations and the phonetic alphabet in entries to the use of abbreviations and ways of learning from example sentences. The use of affixes is also threaded through these units. 

Focus on Vocabulary has much to offer: It is well organized, with systematic recycling of vocabulary and skills. Because the readings are taken from textbooks across the disciplines, there will be a wide appeal and instant credibility for pre-entry students who want to work with “real” course material. Expansion tasks called “Exploring the Topic” provide opportunities for students to reflect on the topics they have read about. In short, this book is written with both teachers and learners in mind. It would work well as the core text in a stand-alone vocabulary course or, with supplementation, an academic reading course. However, because the focus is on vocabulary, it would be helpful if the Expansion tasks focused a bit more overtly on getting students to use the target items in a less structured way, in their speaking and writing. Despite this quibble, teachers of advanced learners, whether new to the profession or veterans, will find Focus on Vocabulary accessible and clear. Providing significant exposure to all 570 words on the Academic Word List, in solid academic contexts, it will enable learners to become more independent acquirers and users of vocabulary long after they have finished the book.


Coxhead, A. (2000). A new Academic Word List. TESOL Quarterly 34(2), 213-238.

Krashen, S. (1994). The power of reading. Englewood, CO: Libraries Unlimited.

Paribakht, T. S., & Wesche, M. (1998). Reading and “incidental” vocabulary acquisition. SSLA 21, 196-224.

Qian, D. (1999). Assessing the role of depth and breadth of vocabulary knowledge in reading comprehension [Electronic version]. Canadian Modern Language Review 56(2). Retrieved December 14, 2004, from Communication and Mass Media Complete database.

Marti Sevier teaches academic skills in the English Bridge Program at Simon Fraser University in British Columbia, Canada. She is a member of TESOL and BC TEAL.


Website Review: Learning Vocabulary Can Be Fun

Karen Stanley, karen.stanley@cpcc.edu

With the teaching of vocabulary making a strong comeback as a major element in ESL/EFL teaching methodology, I've been paying particular attention to vocabulary-focused websites that could be useful for students and teachers in the academic ESL program at my community college. In our program, the entry level is designed for false beginners, and successful completion of our top level is accepted by the college as indicating adequate English proficiency to take the college's "regular" composition courses.

The Learning Vocabulary Can Be Fun website (http://www.vocabulary.co.il/) offers vocabulary games designed for ESL students.  The website seems best used as a lab activity or an individual learning activity.

The website offers the following games:

Word Search has two levels of difficulty with a Timer option.  The word search puzzle is at the left, with a list of eight words to the right.  As the words are all there, students could probably handle either the easy or hard level without feeling frustrated.

Crossword offers a choice of two levels and of topic; the ones I looked at (Around the World and Cleaning at Level 1) seemed a bit beyond what I think would be useful for my students. 

Hangman has no levels and is too hard for my students (under Animals, the word that came up was fawn and under Baby, teething)

Quiz consists of multiple-choice questions; at Level 1, the questions seemed good for my students. It is available only as a timed quiz, but you can set the timer for 60 seconds, which is longer than it seems.  If your students are at a low level, you could suggest they do this in pairs.

Match Game has a Learning option and a Play option. Learning includes a picture, the word, and the pronunciation of the word.  The Play part (which has an Easy 12-card, 6-item option) is the old card game in which you try to remember where both red 7s, both black 10s, and so on, are (which, as a child, I called Concentration).  ThePlay part also offers pictures, words, and pronunciation whenever a card is clicked on.

In Jumble, you drag the jumbled letters into a frame. Selecting Easy along with the No Timer option created a level of vocabulary game that seemed good for my students.  In the Animal category, Easy started with bird, Medium with kangaroo (seemed a bit difficult for most of my students), and Difficult with rhinoceros (probably not good for most of my students). This game could be played by a pair of students if the level seems a bit difficult. As all the letters are provided and visible, and the letter sticks in the frame if you drag it to the correct place, any student can eventually solve every jumble even without knowing the word—as long as the No Timer option is on.

This website might be a fun reinforcement of a lesson on a particular category of vocabulary, but you can’t be sure that the words you introduce in class are actually the ones that show up in the game. Generally, I would not use this as a required component of a class, but I would suggest it to students who want to add a few words to their vocabulary and who enjoy word games.

Karen Stanley teaches academic ESL at Central Piedmont Community College in Charlotte, North Carolina, USA.

Announcements and Information Helping ESL Students Achieve the Dream

Craig Machado, CMachado@ncc.commnet.edu

Achieving the Dream: Community Colleges Count is a national initiative designed to improve student success in community colleges. Achieving the Dream is funded by The Lumina Foundation for Education, the Knowledge Works Foundation and The Nellie Mae Education Foundation. As the name implies, Achieving the Dream is designed to help more students reach their educational and career goals, especially those students that have been traditionally underserved in higher education — low_income students, first generation college_goers and students of color. Norwalk Community College in Norwalk, Connecticut, was one of 35 selected nationally to be part of this initiative which incorporates the following:


• using data to drive strategies, monitor progress and evaluate outcomes;

• developing strategies to close performance gaps among students;

• involving  faculty, students, staff and  the wider community in developing and implementing strategies to improve outcomes;

• reporting data and outcomes broadly, both on and off campus;

• forming partnerships with the community, local businesses and others;

•advocating for state and national changes as needed.


We are especially pleased that ESL will be a very active part of this initiative, as our ESL student population (approximately 20% of all enrolled students) includes many working at minimum wage jobs, many who have attended and graduated from US public schools but are still weak in college-level reading and writing, and those of color. The top five ethnic/country groups represented in our ESL program are, in descending order, Colombia, Brazil, Poland, Haiti and the former USSR republics.

Over the next three years we are looking to strengthen our ties with non_credit ESL, increase the number of ESL students who enroll in regular college courses and provide enhanced tutoring and advising to those ESL students who graduated from high schools in the US (i.e. "Generation 1.5")  but are not ready yet for the demands of college work. We hope this grant will also allow us to further refine our placement instruments, revamp student learning outcomes and track ESL student success beyond the ESL program.


Craig Machado is ESL program director at Norwalk Community College. In 2005, the program was honored by the National Council of Teachers of English for outstanding work in the area of developmental English.

Member Stories: Murat Turk, EFL Teacher in Istanbul, Turkey


Murat Turk is an EFL teacher at the Yeditepe University English Preparatory School in Kayisdagi, Kadikoy, Istanbul, Turkey. He has been interested in teaching since childhood and, credits his own high school English teacher for awakening his passion for teaching English. “When I was in the 9th grade...my English teacher encouraged me to study English at university and to become an English language teacher. I was deeply interested in teaching grammar and vocabulary to my peers, particularly before midterms and finals.”

Clearly, this advice bore fruit, as Murat graduated from Middle East Technical University in Ankara, in 2003, where he was ranked first among 5000 students! After graduation, he worked at a private language school for two years, where he taught English for TOEFL and similar proficiency exams administered in Turkey. In his current position as English Language Instructor at Yeditepe University, he teaches English reading, grammar, listening and writing at the elementary level.

Murat makes it a point to include “entertainment” in his courses. As he sees it, “...language learners, no matter which level they are at, always look for fun so that they can pay more and more attention to what is going on in the classroom until the very end of the session. For this reason, I always use visual aids, such as pictures, posters, real objects or whatever they can see with their own eyes. I also assign poster presentations to my students both individually and in pairs so that they can also develop their intrapersonal and interpersonal skills. I also give the occasional responsibility of teaching new vocabulary to their own friends in the class with pictures or whatever they can use.”

In 2005, Murat was awarded a Fulbright grant and admitted to the Michigan State University MA TESOL program but has had to defer his graduate study. The brilliant silver lining is that the reason was his wife’s pregnancy, and, he reports " I recently became a father of a beautiful princess whose name is Begum, which means ‘an Indian princess’. My life got more value and meaning with the coming of that beautiful princess." Now his ambition is to return to his original plan and get an MA TESOL from a US university. “I really have an endless desire and appetite for teaching English to people. That's why I chose this profession. I am certain that I will get that scholarship and get my MA because I am a very hardworking person and I never give up until I achieve my goal. People in Turkey are very respectful towards teachers since Mustafa Kemal ATATURK, the founder of Turkish Republic, was our first teacher. I am determined to teach English to people until I die because I believe I was born for teaching English!!!”

About This Community About This Community

TESOL ESL in Higher Education Interest Section

ESL in Higher Education advances effective instruction, promotes professional standards and practices, influences and supports policies of TESOL and other associations, determines needs, and considers all other matters relevant to ESL in colleges and universities.

HEIS Community Leaders 2005-2006

Chair: Guy R. Kellogg, e-mail gkellogg@hawaii.edu
Chair-Elect: Soonhyang Kim, e-mail kim1259@osu.edu
Editor: Maria Parker, e-mail mgparker@duke.edu

Book reviews editor: Gena Bennett, e-mail genabennett@yahoo.com

Discussion E-List: Visit http://www.tesol.org/getconnected to subscribe to HEIS-L, the discussion list for HEIS members, or visit http://lists.tesol.org/read/?forum=heis-l if already a subscriber.

Website: http://www.sfu.ca/heis          

Note from the Editor: Get involved - consider contributing to our newsletter! Priority items in the next issue will be articles summarizing HEIS presentations, colloquia, workshops, discussion groups and intersections at TESOL 2006. Please contact colleagues who might want to submit a summary of a TESOL 2006 session and feel free to solicit and submit articles, book reviews, and brief reports on all issues of interest to the Higher Ed community. 

For further information, contact Maria Parker, mgparker@duke.edu (articles and reports) or Gena Bennett, genabennett@yahoo.com (book reviews).

The deadline for submissions to HEIS 25-2 is June 30, 2006.