NNEST Newsletter

NNEST News, Volume 8:2 (October 2006)

by User Not Found | 10/27/2011
In This Issue...
  • Leadership Updates
    • Editors’ Remarks
    • Letter From the Chair
  • Articles and Information
    • Inner Workings of the Inner Circle: Repercussions for NESTs and NNESTs and Recent Challenges, Suzanne Byrne
    • “English Villages” in South Korea: What Do They Really Promote?, Mi-Young Kim
    • The Realization of Nonnativeness: A Personal Account, Hayriye Kayi
    • EFL Teachers in Chinese Public Schools: Reflections and Suggestions on Their Needs, Yang Yu
  • Announcements
    • Announcements and Information
  • About This Community
    • About the Nonnative English Speakers in TESOL Caucus (NNEST)
    • NNEST Newsletter Call for Submissions
    • NNEST Newsletter Mission Statement

Leadership Updates Editors’ Remarks

Sandra Zappa-Hollman, University of British Columbia, sczappa@interchange.ubc.ca (Editor)

Kyung-Hee Bae, University of Houston Writing Center, kbae@uh.edu (Volunteer Editor)

Lisya Seloni, Ohio State University, seloni.1@osu.edu (Volunteer Editor)

We are very pleased to share with you our first edited issue of the NNEST Caucus newsletter. 

In her eloquent message, Karen Newman reflects on some of the transitions that usually come with this time of the year, announces the theme of our upcoming TESOL 2007 NNEST Caucus colloquium, and encourages all of us to maintain our commitment to education and research on NNEST-related issues. 

The opening article, by Suzanne Byrne, discusses the "first-come, first-served" mindset and accompanying "finders keepers" practices characterizing the inner workings of the inner circle of the TESOL industry, and the repercussions for NESTs and NNESTs as well as recent challenges to that mindset and associated practices.

In "'English villages' in South Korea: What do they really promote?" Mi-Young Kim describes the recent emergence of "English villages" in Korea. Drawing on her experience as a village visitor for one day, she examines this new village-mania with a critical eye and, among other issues, suggests that the status of Korean NNESTs as well as the public education system in that country might be negatively affected by this new phenomenon.

The third article, by Hayriye Kayi, is a personal reflection on her process of becoming aware of her nonnativeness while applying for a teaching assistantship position as a Turkish international student hoping to study and work in a U.S. university. Her successful story might inspire other NNESTs facing similar situations. 

The fourth article, authored by Yang Yu, discusses the English language learning phenomenon that has been sweeping across China. Illustrating the recent shifts in language teaching approaches, she focuses on the resulting issues faced by Chinese-speaking local NNESTs and offers some suggestions as well. 

We hope you will enjoy reading about such diverse topics as common practices in the TESOL job market, English villages in Korea, awareness of nonnativeness, and the teaching of EFL by Chinese NNESTs in their home country. We also encourage you to send us your contributions for the May 2007 issue of the newsletter. Please send your submissions by March 30, 2007, to the newsletter editor, Sandra Zappa-Hollman, atsczappa@interchange.ubc.ca

We would like to close these remarks by thanking the authors for the contributions, and by expressing our appreciation to Silvia Pessoa and Fabiana Sacchi (outgoing NNEST Caucus newsletter editors) for their guidance and support in the process of putting together this issue of the newsletter. We wish them as well as all other NNEST Caucus members a very productive semester.


Letter From the Chair

Karen Newman, Ohio State University, newman.301@osu.edu



Dear Colleagues in NNEST,

As a new school year begins in my corner of the world in Columbus, Ohio, I find myself observing and participating in a number of transitions. Our new students have arrived in our MA, MEd, PhD, and TESOL endorsement programs, and our department has been abuzz with excitement, anticipation, and activity with our late–September start of classes. Here in the Midwest, the transitions this time of year brings are always quite dramatic, with the leaves changing color and hordes of Ohio State football fans excitedly awaiting home-game Saturdays to fill the 110,000-seat "Shoe" stadium to capacity. Back at home, the plants I nurtured on the balcony this summer are fading, and the weather is becoming nippier outside, with frost on occasional mornings. As always in the fall, I find myself drawing inward, thinking of the past, giving thanks for all that the past year has brought, and spending more time indoors with my family, my friends, and that ever-present, beckoning stack of work. For many of us in the caucus, this time of year is also a time of formal religious reflection, with the Ramadan and Rosh Hashana holidays already upon us. I send you and your family, friends, and colleagues my wishes for peace in your celebrations and your own transitions, and wish you a successful new year of teaching and research as well. 

What's new with NNEST? Your leadership team and contributing writers have been hard at work to prepare this edition of our newsletter and also to plan ahead for the annual TESOL convention March 19–24, 2007, in Seattle, Washington. We have chosen the theme of "The Mentoring of NNEST Professionals" for our TESOL 2007 NNEST Caucus Colloquium, and to this end, we have an exciting lineup of 11 colleagues, representing 7 universities, for our panel presentations. As we gear up for this annual event, we will also be calling on all of our caucus members to respond to an online survey that we will distribute in the coming weeks. Chair-Elect Luciana de Oliveira and I, on behalf of our caucus, have received $400 in TESOL "Special Projects" funding to investigate NNEST mentorship across different contexts, and we look forward to your responses and learning of your experiences. We will present the results of the survey during the NNEST Caucus Colloquium in 2007, so please watch your e-mail for information on how to participate in this survey. 

In addition, as we look forward to TESOL 2007, I happily inform you that TESOL has agreed to design and finance the production of colorful buttons for our caucus and the other six caucuses as well. We tried to do this on our own in the past, but we found that the costs were quite prohibitive for our limited caucus budget, so TESOL has kindly come to the rescue. The buttons will feature the words "NNEST Caucus" on a bold background for us to wear during the upcoming 2007 conference. Be sure to stop by the NNEST booth to pick up a free button and take a few back home for your colleagues!

On this letter's theme of transitions, I would also like to extend congratulations to those of you who have recently made professional transitions and published articles and books with NNEST themes, and to those who have made personal transitions as well. Please join me in congratulating Newsletter Editor Sandra Zappa-Hollman, who received a TESL doctoral scholarship from her department at the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, and is in the final stages of her dissertation writing. Newsletter Assistant Kyung-Hee Bae was recently promoted to assistant director at the University of Houston's Writing Center, and Newsletter Assistant Lisya Seloni advanced to PhD candidacy at Ohio State and spent the summer teaching English in Pusan, Korea. Ana Wu, our web manager, continues her ESL teaching at City College of San Francisco and is completing a Teaching Composition Certificate at San Francisco State University to polish her teaching skills. Rosie Maum, our electronic mailing list manager, continues her Spanish teaching at Jefferson County Public Schools in Louisville, Kentucky, and serves as past president and parliamentarian of the Kentucky TESOL affiliate. Aiden Yeh, our assistant electronic mailing list manager, will present a paper entitled "Using Podcast for Oral Skills" at the 15th International Symposium and Book Fair on English Teaching this fall in Taipei, Taiwan. Our historian, George Braine, is the new president of the Hong Kong Association for Applied Linguistics. Chair-Elect Luciana de Oliveira graduated with her PhD from the University of California, Davis, got married, and assumed her new position as assistant professor at Purdue University in Indiana. Immediate Past Chair Lucie Moussu completed her PhD at Purdue University and started her new position as assistant professor at Ryerson University in Toronto. I myself got married this summer to a physicist (talk about speaking different languages!) and am currently conducting research on ESL/EFL, foreign language, and Waldorf teacher education. As you can see, your caucus leaders have had some exciting changes in their lives, and we are hard at work to continue our teaching, research, and own growth. One of our NNEST Caucus missions is to develop new leaders, so I encourage you to consider running for one of our caucus leadership positions as we get closer to nomination time. Your voice will help us to make a difference, and your team of current leaders will be there to assist our new, incoming team with the annual leadership transition. 

As I close this letter, I am reminded that, at the heart of our caucus, is our commitment to transitions in the profession of English language teaching. We—collectively and individually—seek to educate others by taking a stand on issues relating to NNESTs and NESTs, conduct empirical research, and make a difference in our own working lives and in our students' academic lives. As one of our recent electronic mailing list discussion threads has shown, employers who would seek to employ only native English speakers will continue their solicitations, and only through our ongoing vigilance can we help to transform long-standing (mis)perceptions about language education, both inside and outside of our profession. 

Warm Regards,

Karen

 



Articles and Information Inner Workings of the Inner Circle: Repercussions for NESTs and NNESTs and Recent Challenges, Suzanne Byrne

Suzanne Byrne, University of Sydney, Australia, seadragon2001@hotmail.com

I recently watched the movie Passage to India (Lean, 1984), which is set in British India circa the early 20th century. In one scene, Fielding, a teacher born in Britain, converses in English with Hamidullah, a lawyer born in British India. Fielding states that he is in British India because he needs a job. Hamidullah responds that well-qualified Indians also need jobs in the educational sector. Fielding replies he "got in first," indicating that he has no intention of surrendering his job to anyone not born in Britain. It appears the "first-come, first-served" mindset articulated by Fielding and manifested in "finders keepers" practices served as justification for the creation and protection of employment opportunities outside Britain for those born in Britain. The positions of Fielding and the well-qualified Indian appear to be analogous to those of NESTs and NNESTs respectively in the TESOL industry in the early 21st century. Moreover, the first-come-first-served mindset and associated finders-keepers practices in the contemporary TESOL industry seem to underpin the creation and protection of employment opportunities for NESTs. This paper explores these issues regarding the inner workings of the inner circle of the TESOL industry, as well as repercussions for NESTs and NNESTs and recent challenges to the situation.

Who qualifies as a NEST? Amin (2004) stated that the native English speaker (NES) construct is embedded in the larger discourses of nativism. Nativism dictates that those born outside an English-speaking country such as England to parents who speak a language other than English cannot attain NES status (p. 78). Therefore, in the movie, because Hamidullah was not born in an "inner circle" English-speaking country (Kachru, 1992) he would never be regarded as an NES even though he and Fielding conduct their conversation in English and Hamidullah's language proficiency is equivalent to that of Fielding. Similarly, the well-qualified Indians referred to by Hamidullah would never be regarded as NESs. However, Fielding would always be regarded as an NES. Likewise, in the contemporary TESOL industry, the first-come-first-served mindset and modus operandi of finders-keepers practices exclude from the NEST category all those born outside inner-circle countries. Hence, the generic categorization of TESOL teachers as NESTs or NNESTs by reference to country of birth appears to be a legacy of nativism.

Is country of birth the sole determinant for qualification as a NEST? According to Shin (2005) the "normative nature of Whiteness is associated with the notion" of the NES construct whereas the non-native English speaker (NNES) construct "is combined with 'coloredness' or 'Asianness.'" Consequently, it seems that most viewers of the movie would immediately assign the NES construct to the fair-skinned Fielding and the NNES construct to the dark-skinned Hamidullah. By extension, the NNES construct would also be assigned to the well-qualified Indians mentioned by Hamidullah. Hence, as Amin (2004) asserted, the NES construct pertains not only to language competence "but it is deeply embedded in discourses of racism and colonialism that inform both individual and institutional understandings and evaluations . . ." (p. 62). Amin noted that Pennycook (1998) claimed that the native speaker is a legacy of colonialism (p. 62). It appears the first-come-first-served mindset and attendant finders-keepers practices of the contemporary TESOL industry are also a legacy of colonialism because they exclude those who are not White from acquiring a NES voice and thereby passing as NESTs "according to the dominant Anglo-American identity" (Canagarajah, 2005).

Do the first-come-first-served mindset and finders-keepers practices create and protect employment opportunities for all NESTs? The answer seems to be "usually, but not always." There appears to be little doubt that the said mindset and practices promote and validate certain native-English voices/accents as the "heroes" of the TESOL industry narrative while simultaneously marginalizing other voices/accents as the "villains" of the narrative. The nationality of "hero" voices/accents appears to parallel the locus of geopolitical power. Consequently, whereas the first-come-first-served mindset has remained entrenched in the TESOL industry, it seems British finders-keepers practices have been replaced by American finders-keepers practices. For instance, when I lived in Japan many job advertisements solicited applications from only native English speakers with American accents, particularly midwestern accents. Therefore, the preference for American accents that I encountered in Japan appears to belie the assumption that all NESTs are "heroes" and NNESTs are the only "villains" in the context of employment opportunities in the TESOL industry. During my time in Japan, I was not aware of any locally organized collective effort by NESTs or NNESTs to counter this finders-keepers practice. However, all the TESOL teachers explicitly discriminated against in Japan could have formed an alliance to counter this discriminatory practice, thus creating a collaborative movement that could empower both NESTs and NNESTs and could engender solidarity between the two groups.

The above-mentioned discriminatory finders-keepers practice in the TESOL industry in Japan prompted me to consider the sub-dichotomies within the NEST/NNEST dichotomy. Within the NEST category is the sub-dichotomy composed of U.S. NESTs versus the sub-dichotomy composed of NESTs from all the other inner-circle countries (i.e., Britain, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand). Consequently, prestige and hence "employment preference" within the NEST category appear to be dependent on place of birth and concomitant accent. Within the NNEST category is the sub-dichotomy composed of "visible" minorities versus the sub-dichotomy composed of "invisible" minorities. The "visible" (marked) tag constitutes the antithesis of the "Caucasian" tag which is synonymous with the "invisible" (unmarked) tag. Therefore, prestige and hence employment preference within the NNEST category appear to be dependent upon place of birth and race. In addition to both NEST and NNEST categories being structured sub-dichotomously, they are structured hierarchically. In the NEST category American accents outrank other inner-circle accents, whereas in the NNEST category "invisible" minorities outrank "visible" minorities. Also, across the NEST/NNEST dichotomy all accents from inner-circle countries appear to outrank all accents from outer-circle countries such as India and "expanding circle" countries such as Japan (Kachru, 1992).

The above analysis seems to indicate that evaluation of prestige and employment preference within and between the categories comprising the NEST/NNEST dichotomy in the contemporary TESOL industry is a product of the majority of individuals and institutions embracing the first-come-first-served mindset and finders-keepers practices. Further, the said mindset and practices appear to discriminate explicitly against some NESTs as well as all NNESTs.

According to the TESOL Position Statement Against Discrimination of Nonnative Speakers of English in the Field of TESOL (TESOL, 2006), all educators should be evaluated against the same criteria. The criteria are formal education, linguistic expertise, teaching experience, and professional preparation as a teacher. I agree with the spirit and the letter of the Statement. However, such agreement raises the following questions: Is each criterion to be given equal weight? What are the parameters of each criterion? Are the parameters immutable or flexible?

The spirit and letter of the Statement appear to envision equal weight being given to each criterion for the purpose of evaluation of educators. However, according to the finders-keepers practices presently operating within the TESOL industry it seems that greater weight is given to linguistic expertise (i.e., English language proficiency) when NESTs and NNESTs compete for the same employment opportunities. Consequently, it seems the upshot of greater weight being given to linguistic expertise is the circumvention of the spirit and letter of the Statement; thereby, somehow ironically, NNESTs are implicitly discriminated against in order to protect employment opportunities for NESTs.

The parameters of the finders-keepers model of English language proficiency are generally equated with the immutable all-or-nothing NES model. This model has its genesis in NES and NNES constructs that are mutually exclusive and diametrically opposed. However, Kamhi-Stein (2005) successfully challenged the parameters of the NES model by repudiating its all-or-nothing perception of L1/C1 and L2/C2. She spoke instead from a "hybrid in-between location" created by deconstructing the "invisible minority" NNES concept. Similarly, other NNESs have successfully challenged the parameters of the NES model and arrived at a hybrid location by negotiating race and deconstructing the "visible minority" concept (Canagarajah, 2005).

Pasternak and Bailey (2004) eschewed the finders-keepers view of English language proficiency as an immutable all-or-nothing model. Rather, they conceptualized English language proficiency as a continuum. Pasternak and Bailey argued that language proficiency can develop continually throughout a teacher's professional life. They also countenanced a segmentary approach to English language proficiency. Consequently, individual teachers may have different levels of proficiency across the four competencies. In an attempt to break the finders-keepers stranglehold on the TESOL industry, Pasternak and Bailey asserted that English language proficiency need not be equated with the all-or-nothing NES construct.

Mahboob (2006) postulated that English language proficiency can be evolving and dynamic. In his framework, language proficiency is determined by the interrelationship between the variables in language and genre/context and one's familiarity with these variables. Therefore, Familiarity + Language + Context = Proficiency in expert or professional discourses routinely engaged in (such as classroom talk for experienced teachers) whereas Familiarity - Language - Context = Proficiency in unique circumstances (such as using an unfamiliar dialect coupled with unfamiliar contexts encountered when travelling). Mahboob, offering an alternative model to the all-or-nothing model of language proficiency subscribed to by finders-keepers practices in the TESOL industry, advocated a flexible definition of English language proficiency. Such a definition considers both the domain of language use as well as local language variety.

This paper discussed the inner workings of the inner circle manifested as the first-come-first-served mindset and associated finders-keepers practices in the contemporary TESOL industry. The repercussions of and recent challenges to the said mindset and practices were also discussed. The first-come-first-served mindset and accompanying finders-keepers practices—a legacy of colonialism—have dominated and continue to dominate the TESOL industry, sometimes to the disadvantage of some NESTs but always to the disadvantage of all NNESTs. However, recent challenges to this mindset and these practices may result in the preference for "generic" NESTs over "generic" NNESTs—a legacy of nativism—becoming untenable.

 

References

Amin, N. (2004). Nativism, the native speaker construct, and minority immigrant women teachers of English as a second language. In L. D. Kamhi-Stein (Ed.), Learning and teaching from experience: Perspectives on nonnative English-speaking professionals (pp. 61-80). Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press.

Canagarajah, S. (2005, October). Race and nonnativeness. NNEST Newsletter, 7(2). Retrieved September 8, 2006, fromhttp://www.tesol.org//s_tesol/article.asp?vid=151&DID=4637&sid=1&cid=718&iid=4633&nid=2982

Heyman, J., & Sands, E. (Producers), Lean, D. (Director). (1984). Passage to India [Film]. US: Ernest Day, Columbia Pictures.

Kachru, B. B. (1992). Teaching world Englishes. In B. B. Kachru (Ed.), The other tongue: English across cultures (2nd ed., pp. 355-365). Urbana: University of Illinois Press.

Kamhi-Stein, L. (2005, October). Mi viaje: A journey of invisibility and nonnativeness in English. NNEST Newsletter, 7(2). Retrieved September 8, 2006, fromhttp://www.tesol.org//s_tesol/article.asp?vid=151&DID=4637&sid=1&cid=718&iid=4633&nid=2982

Mahboob, A. (2006, May). Towards a familiarity-based approach to language proficiency. NNEST Newsletter, 8(1). Retrieved June 11, 2006, fromhttp://www.tesol.org//s_tesol/article.asp?vid=151&DID=6169&sid=1&cid=718&iid=6165&nid=2982

Pasternak, M., & Bailey, K. M. (2004). Preparing nonnative and native English-speaking teachers: Issues of professionalism and proficiency. In L. D. Kamhi-Stein (Ed.), Learning and teaching from experience: Perspectives on nonnative English-speaking professionals (pp. 155-175). Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press

Pennycook, A. (1998). English and the Discourses of Colonialism. New York/London: Routledge.

Shin, H. (2005, October). We feel more comfortable with each other: Identity construction of Asian nonnative English teachers in a U.S. graduate program.NNEST Newsletter 7(2). Retrieved September 8, 2006, from http://www.tesol.org//s_tesol/article.asp?vid=151&DID=4637&sid=1&cid=718&iid=4633&nid=2982

TESOL Inc. (2006) Position statement against discrimination of nonnative speakers of English in the field of TESOL. Retrieved April 11, 2006, from 
http://www.tesol.org/s_tesol/bin.asp?CID=32&DID=5889&DOC=FILE.PDF

Suzanne Byrne is an MA in applied linguistics candidate at the University of Sydney, Australia.

 


“English Villages” in South Korea: What Do They Really Promote?, Mi-Young Kim

Mi-Young Kim, University of British Columbia, Canada, mykim5@interchange.ubc.ca



English in Korea: A "Must" for Everyone? 

The growing importance and dominant role of English in fields such as information technology and education, among others, makes English teaching and learning an important issue in many non-English-speaking countries. Particularly in the case of South Korea, English proficiency, once a "plus" or additional qualification, has now become a necessity for practically everyone if they wish to gain access to better schools and future job opportunities.

In order to "motivate a student's interest in English and to develop basic communicative competence" (Ministry of Education, 1996, as cited in S. K. Jung & Norton, 2002), the South Korean government launched a mandatory English program in elementary school in 1997. In addition, a steadily growing English market includes 3,000 private institutions (an unofficial count exceeds 10,000) whose revenue totals about $2 billion.  Another English player is the $1.3 billion English educational resources market that attracts students with catchy phrases such as "Guarantee to help you speak with native speakers of English in two short weeks."  Moreover, in hopes of having a better chance of acquiring "live" English, an increasing number of students head to English-speaking countries for long- or short-term language programs, investing about $1.5 billion abroad a year (Hong, 2002). Some are concerned that a gap is being created between those who can afford such expense at home or abroad and those who cannot, leading to an "English divide" in which "the rich get richer, [and] the poor get poorer" in Korean society (J. Y. Jung, 2005). In short, learning English in an English as a foreign language (EFL) context such as Korea seems to take not only effort and time but also money, and quite a lot of it.

In what follows, I describe the recent development of "English villages" in Korea, which are an attempt to provide residents of this country with an opportunity for an English language immersion experience without the need to travel abroad. I examine these villages with a critical eye and suggest that though they are currently perceived by the general public as the ideal way of learning English, among other things, they may undermine the status of Korean nonnative English-speaking (NNES) teachers and, to some extent, weaken public education in that country.

English Villages: The Real "Authentic" Thing?

In an attempt to provide learners with opportunities to be exposed to so-called "authentic" living experiences with native English speakers (NESs) within an EFL context, the first "English village" in Korea was established in a city in Gyeonggi-Do Province in August 2004. Since then, several other villages have mushroomed throughout the country. These villages follow an English-only policy, whereby all village campers and daily visitors within the boundaries of the village are required to speak in English and engage in interactions with NESs by means of simulated activities (e.g., shopping, going to classes, to the cinema). A recent survey shows that 98% of the village campers found that their experience at the village contributed to their "getting rid of fear in communicating with NESs" (Kang, 2006). Thanks to such popularity and also partly as a political agenda,  about 55 English villages are either in operation or planned to be established in Korea by 2008 (Song, 2006).

However, the villages have met with some resistance. Concerned voices warn that the village itself might not be an answer to issues related to the teaching and learning of English in Korea. Education nongovernmental organization groups such as JeonGyoJo (The Korean Teachers and Education Workers' Union) and Chamgyoyuk Hakbumoheo (Association of Parents for Real Education) argue that the overzealous establishment of such villages wastes taxpayers' money  and promotes "English imperialism" (Canagarajah, 1999; Pennycook, 1994; Phillipson, 1992) by, for instance, further imposing a sense of needing to use English for communication on residents of a non-English-speaking country. Furthermore, the blind pursuit of the English village concept could potentially negatively impact the status of Korean EFL educators in public schools, as people are misled into thinking that real, useful, and therefore valued English can be learned only by participating in a so-called "authentic English village." Hence, it seems as though everyone is jumping on the bandwagon and heading in a direction that has not yet been thoroughly investigated, as this new village phenomenon is so recent that no conclusive evidence suggests its claimed benefits are true. After all, learning a foreign language is a complicated process that takes more than a few hours or days of exposure to the language.

P Village: My Experience as an Observer 

A few months ago on a fine summer day, I had a chance to visit P village,  one of the newest and best equipped English villages in Korea. The village basically looks like a theme park  modeled after a "typical" British village. It includes 47 buildings with facilities that are used for different activities: educational experiences (e.g., school classrooms), simulated experiences (e.g., a police station, a post office, a bank, a travel agency, and a health center), and entertainment activities (e.g., indoor/outdoor theaters, a concert hall, a broadcasting station, museums, and sports centers). In the center of the village stands a city hall, and dormitories for staff and students ("campers") are located nearby. About 100 NES instructors and up to 550 students can stay in dormitories within the town, and over 70 NES staff work in the village facilities. 
Several types of programs are offered in the village: a 6-day program designed exclusively for eighth graders, held during regular school terms and recognized as an alternative to regular school classes; a 2-week intensive program, offered during summer and winter breaks for fifth to ninth graders in the province; and a weekend elementary program for third to sixth graders, held for two consecutive weekends. There is also a weekend family program and a 1-day experience program for individual visitors. The cost varies according to the duration and the type of experience, from a few dollars (e.g., a 1-day pass is $2) to over $600 (for the longest immersion option). A provincially funded subsidy is available for students from a low-income family for a 6-day program. The costs are relatively reasonable because the program's main purpose is to eliminate for Korean EFL learners the "need for intensive language learning abroad."  In the end, the hope is not only to help students learn English, but also to minimize spending overseas and narrow the gap between those who can and cannot afford an overseas language learning experience.

There are many things to do once inside the village. For instance, people can exchange pseudo American dollars at a bank to purchase textbooks, groceries, or village souvenirs.  They can also participate in three 90-minute sessions a day on science, music, entertainment, or drama. In addition, students can watch quiz shows or movies in English, or participate in sports activities. Village participants are also encouraged to take advantage of several "situational settings," such as a miniature airplane seating arrangement complete with a "flight attendant." 

Yet in spite of the claim that village visitors will have access to an authentic English immersion experience, my personal experience at the village was neither authentic nor impressive. For instance, when I lined up for "immigration," I noted that the immigration officer did not fit the typical profile of immigration officers found in airports. This particular individual wore flip-flops, had a hole in one ear the size of a nickel, and sported reddish-pink hair. "Quite an authentic experience," I thought to myself while answering seemingly inappropriate questions such as "How old are you?" Also, besides that fact, the buildings and the atmosphere seemed foreign and somewhat exotic, and I could hardly witness anything else "authentic." As a matter of fact, I would say that considering the large number of visitors, there were too few NES staff members, which implied that exposure to native-like English through NES staff was indeed minimal.

Overall, I found it hard to determine what exactly this P village was devised to accomplish in the first place. A brochure distributed in the village's city hall states that the village "is designed to realize the same atmosphere as a town in England where the participants can learn and speak English in a natural setting" by engaging in interactions with NESs. If this was to be a replication of an English (as in "of England") village, that would explain the Stonehenge reproduction in front of the village and the Harry Potter-like students' cafeteria. However, it does not explain why everything else was done in American English, from the spelling of signs in the village to the use of American currency and the way most village staff spoke. As an EFL teacher myself, I could not help but notice these inconsistencies, which I judge as quite unprofessional and misleading. Also, I could not fail to notice that many staff members seemed to look like the stereotypical NES (i.e., Caucasian) yet did not sound like one. In fact, some of the staff members were non-Korean NNESs who may have been given a job at the village mostly on the basis of their looks (i.e., fair hair and skin, light-colored eyes) rather than on the basis of their English language proficiency or their linguistic background, for some of them spoke English with a clear non-English accent. Most important, my visit to this village left me wondering about whether there is a justified need for Koreans to have access to this type of so-called "authentic village," when English instruction is already part of the school curriculum where the need for resources and qualified staff (NESs and NNESs alike) seems more urgent and crucial.

Concluding Remarks 

As an observer for just a day, I was unable to assess the results of long-term programs or ask participants of these programs how satisfied they were with their experiences. Still, I could tell from the palpable enthusiasm of parents and kids alike that they were enjoying this new kind of amusement park, where attractions and rides had been replaced with role-plays and simulated authentic activities that involved speaking in English. However, I could not help but wonder about the ultimate consequences of such a village. As briefly stated above, the actual experiences seem far from being authentic, British or otherwise, even though authenticity is what village creators claim and what visitors expect. One may also question the implications of the linguistic imperialism (Canagarajah, 1999; Pennycook, 1994; Phillipson, 1992) of these villages. Not only do they promote a visual representation of stereotypical (and therefore misleading) images of NESs, but they exclude Korean NNES teachers from teaching English in these villages regardless of training and qualifications simply because they neither sound nor look like the stereotypical NES. Inevitably, these issues left me wondering: What else besides English is being promoted in these villages? What might be the unexpected consequences for and even detrimental effects on Korean EFL learners? What, if anything, could or should Korean NNES teachers do to prevent the spread of what has now become "English-village mania" in that country? After all, though Korea's new English villages may help some learners immerse themselves in "simulated English," it by no means fits everyone nor does it faithfully reflect natural learning experiences. I believe there is a clear need to engage in research that thoroughly investigates these and other related issues, research I intend to pursue and I hope others may also consider. Otherwise, I fear such villages will remain no more than just another theme park with a lot of money, time, and effort wasted.

References

Canagarajah, A.S. (1999). Resisting linguistic imperialism in English teaching. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.
Hong, S. (2002, February 5). Different facets of English learning. Donga Ilbo, A21. 
Jung, J. Y. (2005, November 12). English gets you money; you need money to learn English. Jugan Chosun (weekly Chosun). Retrieved September 15, 2006, from www.chosun.com/magazine/news/200511/200511120079.html
Jung, S. K., & Norton, B. (2002). Language planning in Korea: The new elementary English program. In J. Tollefson (Ed.), Language policies in education: Critical issues (pp. 245-265). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Kang, C. (2006, April 2). Gyeonggi-Do "English village helps public education. It's necessary." Yonhap News. Retrieved September 10, 2006, fromhttp://blog.yonhapnews.co.kr/kcg33169/post/?searchWord=%uC601%uC5B4%uB9C8%uC744#Post59175
Pennycook, A. (1994). The cultural politics of English as an international language. New York: Longman. 
Phillipson, R. (1992). Linguistic imperialism. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.
Song, D. (2006, May 16). English village: A successful model for innovation of public education. Hankuk kyungjae (Korean economy). Retrieved September 5, 2006, from http://www.hankyung.com

Mi-Young Kim is a doctoral student in the Department of Language and Literacy at the University of British Columbia. Her main research interests include second language writing, sociolinguistics, and teaching English as an international language.

 


The Realization of Nonnativeness: A Personal Account, Hayriye Kayi

Hayriye Kayi, University of Nevada at Reno, http://unr.edu/homepage/hayriyek

This short piece of writing is a summary of how I came to realize my nonnativeness and what I learned from this realization. 
Let me start at the beginning. I obtained my BA in English language teaching from a very prestigious university in Turkey. Though all the students and almost all the professors in the department were nonnative speakers of English, nativeness was never an issue there; in fact, most of its graduates can easily find a teaching or research position at any institution in Turkey. In other words, employers wouldn't normally care about whether you are nonnative or native, as long as you obtained a degree from this university. Hence, I always felt quite confident about my prospects of finding a good job in any place around the world.

Unfortunately, such high hopes lasted only until I came to the United States to get my master's degree. Even though I was admitted to MA TESL programs at several U.S. universities, none of them offered me a teaching assistant position. This came to me as a huge surprise, given that I had graduated from a university with a high reputation, had a good GPA, and believed that my background was good enough to make me eligible for any assistantship position in the United States. At first, I thought they had made a mistake, so I e-mailed the professors and inquired about the issue. Except for a few cases, most of the responses I received were almost the same:

"Unfortunately, we won't be able to offer you an assistantship for your first year of study at [name of a university] as we almost never offer a GAship to an incoming international student, even though almost 50% of our students are international."

"We generally do not award teaching positions to international students unless they have a previous degree from a university in the U.S."

I found a common underlying trend in these messages: nativism. And for the first time in my life, I realized that "nonnativeness" was a big issue. Despite all these discouraging and disappointing messages, however, I was convinced that I could succeed as a graduate assistant in light of my strong educational background and teaching experience. Hence, not willing to give up, I asked for phone interviews, and one professor finally agreed to interview me on the phone. The interview must have changed the professor's mind because after the interview, I was offered a teaching assistantship position and bought my airplane ticket to the United States!

Looking back, I think the key to this success was preparation. I was prepared because I knew who I was and what I could do as a nonnative English-speaking graduate assistant. I also prepared by reading the works of the professors and learning the department's expectations of its graduate assistants. Graduate assistants are expected to have been trained to some extent in library research skills/literature search, research writing, proofreading, and word processing and to have relevant teaching or research experience. In addition, during the interview, I clearly expressed my goals and drew from my teaching experiences while answering the professor's questions. My goal was to get a teaching assistant position, and they were looking for an applicant with some ESL teaching experience or experience in teaching English composition, all of which I had. In short, it was a great start! 

Actually, it was not until I arrived in the United States that I became fully aware of my nonnativeness. At school, my foreign accent made me feel I was different from everyone. I also felt different because I was a poorer speaker and listener of English than were my native English-speaking classmates. More than that, I felt that my English was "bookish." I sometimes unintentionally sounded funny when I used formal language with my classmates. In brief, such experiences made me realize that I had to acknowledge and accept my nonnativeness and work on any weak aspects in order to prove that I had as much to offer as did my native English-speaking counterparts.

I believe that I have benefited from the realization of my nonnativeness in many ways. First, I have improved my self-confidence. Many jobs accepted native English speakers only, which frustrated me initially, but I still obtained a job as an instructor at a U.S. university despite my nonnativeness, which means that I could do it again in the future. Second, I have also learned to work on improving my pronunciation; I figured that if having a foreign accent was a big problem, I needed to deal with it. I have developed various pronunciation strategies that have helped me sound more native-like. For instance, I worked on rhythm, intonation, and stress in front of a mirror and watched the mouth movements of native speakers as much as I could and imitated them. Third, I have come to realize that if I further strengthened my academic background and became an outstanding scholar in the field, my chances of being rejected on the basis of my nonnativeness might be minimized. With this aim in mind, I have now started to publish papers, attend conferences, and, most important, decided to pursue a PhD degree. Yet perhaps equally important is the fact that I have now also focused on my strengths as well as my weaknesses as a nonnative speaker. My strengths include my strong enthusiasm for an academic career, never-ending love for research and teaching, determination, and self-confidence.

Drawing on my experiences, I would like to share the following suggestions with other nonnative English speakers who might consider studying and working as graduate assistants in an English-medium context:

  • Know about yourself! That is, know who you are and what you can accomplish as a nonnative English-speaking research/teaching assistant. But most of all, believe in yourself and what you can do, and do not give up when you meet obstacles in your path!
  • Before applying, read and research about the school and the program to which you would like to apply. You should find out what the professors' interests are and contact those whose interests really match yours.
  • Keep in mind that in order to maximize your chances of finding teaching or research assistantship positions, you need clear pronunciation. My experience tells me that having a foreign accent was not really an issue for me, but I certainly believe that I have gained much of my confidence by continuously working on improving my pronunciation.
  • Finally, don't forget that often even local native English-speaking students have trouble finding graduate teaching assistant or graduate research assistant positions, and that a combination of political and financial reasons may have something to do with this.

In conclusion, I came to realize my nonnativeness when I started my master's application process and became fully aware of it upon my arrival in the United States. Although I had to endure some unpleasant moments as mentioned above, I believe I certainly have benefited from my realization in many ways. I can only hope other nonnative English speakers will not experience such disappointing situations and will receive the same treatment from their prospective professors or employers as do their native-speaking counterparts.

Hayriye Kayi obtained her BA EFL degree from Middle East Technical University in Turkey in 2005. She is currently enrolled in a MA TESOL program at University of Nevada, Reno, where she also works as a graduate research assistant.  

 


EFL Teachers in Chinese Public Schools: Reflections and Suggestions on Their Needs, Yang Yu

Yang Yu, The Ohio State University, yu.292@osu.edu

As China strives to become a full participant in today's globalized world, the need to learn English is growing throughout the country. Communicative language teaching (CLT) has recently gained popularity in China. However, as noted by Huang and Xu (1999), many Chinese English as a foreign language (EFL) teachers lack the communicative proficiency in English to guide their students. At the same time, in light of their oral fluency and native pronunciation (yet regardless of their educational training, as argued by Shao in the October 2005 issue of this newsletter), native English-speaking teachers (NESTs) are actively recruited by private language schools. This leaves local nonnative English-speaking teachers (NNESTs) with the challenge of competing against NESTs and with the need to empower themselves to become better teachers. This empowerment should come as a process that involves intellectual, experiential, and theoretical growth. In addition, to achieve this aim, Chinese NNESTs must gain both local as well as global awareness.

In this article, I provide a brief overview of the current EFL situation in China. I draw special attention to current EFL teacher hiring practices in this country and compare private and public teaching contexts. Next, I focus on the current shifts in teaching approaches and on some of the difficulties that make it hard, especially for NNESTs, to apply CLT in their public school classrooms. The article concludes with some suggestions that other Chinese NNESTs might find useful.

EFL Learning in China: A Nationwide Trend
There is little doubt that learning EFL is extremely popular and has reached fever pitch in the past 20 years in China. Language schools are flourishing in large cities and coastal provinces; Chinese TV and radio stations broadcast daily English language programs; and more native speakers are teaching English in China than ever before. In a sense, an army of teachers is "currently teaching English to more than 600,000,000 Chinese at any given moment, twice the population of the United States of America" (Niu & Wolff, 2004, p. 2). And though English used to be just another required course from middle school to college, currently it is learned beyond the school curriculum. In fact, even kindergarten-age children look forward to receiving EFL instruction, as also do more senior people. "China is not only the country with the largest population, but also has the greatest number of English learners in the world" (Ng & Tang, 2000, p. 66). In sum, learning EFL has become a nationwide practice that spans across people of all ages.

The Boom of Private Language Centers in China 
As stated on a popular Chinese TEFL Web site, "Now, China annually recruits 100,000 'Foreign Experts' (FE) to teach English as a Second Language (ESL)" (source:www.Chinatefl.com) with an accompanying 10 billion Yuan price tag (China Daily, Hong Kong Edition, October 9, 2002). And official statistics show that in 1998 there were 78 language schools/centers in Beijing (Huang & Xu, 1999). Seven years later, as shown by survey data from the Beijing Youth Newspaper (2005), this number has increased to over 1,000. According to this survey, about 300,000 EFL students are enrolled in these private Beijing language schools, which have also become an important source of revenue for the owners of these schools.

What makes these private EFL schools so attractive? Two main factors help answer this question: reduced class size and presence of NES instructors. Private language centers usually register only up to 10 students per class. The small class size that characterizes these language centers in turn affords students the opportunity to practice their spoken skills in ways that they cannot do in the more crowded public school classrooms. In addition, the popularity of these private schools stems from the fact that most of their instructors are NESs who are usually believed to possess better oral English skills than their native Chinese-speaking counterparts. Though most of the Chinese NNESTs in colleges and universities are highly trained, the situation in public elementary and high schools is quite different, as there are fewer Chinese NNESTs with a similar educational background and training and with either living- or study-abroad experiences in an English-speaking country who wish to teach at these levels rather than at the university level. Therefore, this latter group of NNESTs may need further training, in turn, to be able to help improve their students' communicative competence.

Traditional English Teaching versus CLT
Having learned EFL and having been trained to teach a foreign language according to the Grammar-Translation method, NNESTs in China often adopt a teaching methodology that pays little attention to oral skills. The whole public school curriculum is also largely focused on the memorization of rules, often resulting in the assessment of students' performance by means of multiple-choice or short-answer-type tests. In other words, the current teaching method employed in most public schools does not help learners improve their communicative competence.

CLT is a teaching approach that aims to develop communicative competence. "The Communicative Approach is . . . more concerned with the aim of learning a language as a means of communication than with supplying the methods of realizing this aim" (Adamson & Morris, 1997, p. 19). Such an approach involves target language use, student-centered activities, exposure to authentic materials, and integrated skills development, among other things. In order for EFL teachers to be able to apply this approach, they need to have advanced levels of linguistic and sociocultural proficiency in the target language. In short, they require native-like or near-native-like proficiency. However, "qualified native English speakers are not common among the teachers of EFL, and Chinese teachers with near-native competence are still not in the majority" (Tang & Absalom, 2000, p. 124). Admittedly, "it may take years to re-train the two million primary and secondary teachers of English in China in order to implement CLT" (Hu, 2005, p. 66).

Another factor hindering the implementation of CLT in Chinese public schools relates to large class size (an issue already mentioned in the previous section in relation to students' reasons for attending private language schools). "On average, the ratio of teachers to students in China is rather high . . . these conditions go against accepted principles of language teaching" (Huang & Xu, 1999, p. 27). As noted by Tang and Absalom (2000), "class sizes in schools and universities have historically been large (usually from 50 to 60 students) and continue to be so, restricting opportunities for oral practice and the development of conversational skills" (p. 124). Moreover, EFL classes in public schools are usually very short (45-minute class, twice a week). Under these circumstances, it is almost impossible for the teachers to communicate with and pay attention to every student in a balanced way.

Some Suggestions for Chinese EFL Teachers in Public Schools
In what follows I include some suggestions that I believe would be useful for Chinese NNEST teachers working in public schools. First, because local teachers in public schools have been mostly trained to focus on the development of written skills, their oral proficiency in the target language is usually not very high. Therefore, a first suggestion for Chinese NNESTs is to seek study-abroad (or even job) opportunities in an English-speaking country. Research has shown that this can definitely benefit the development of communicative language ability (Bachman, 1990), which many of the NNESTs in public schools so much need. The experience of living in an English-speaking environment usually also provides nonnative speakers with ample opportunities to improve their pronunciation and to acquire a more native-like accent. Though everybody speaks with an accent, the problem is that some accents are more valued than others. The situation in China is that native-like accents are overvalued and, consequently, NNEST teachers are sometimes automatically dismissed based on the grounds that they are not sufficiently proficient because of their foreign accent. Even though speaking English with a Chinese accent should not be the main parameter for judging a teacher's ability to teach, unfortunately one of the main arguments given by students in favor of choosing to study with a NES teacher is based on the way the teacher sounds, and not necessarily on the way he or she teaches.

Another suggestion for Chinese NNESTs is to look for further training opportunities by, for instance, pursuing postgraduate studies. A highly experienced and trained nonnative language professional can certainly become not only an outstanding language teacher, but also an example of a successful language learner whom fellow Chinese students can look up to. Highly trained Chinese NNESTs can prove to their students that effective teaching is not restricted to highly trained NESs.

Third, there is a need for Chinese EFL teachers to switch from a teaching approach based on translation and memorization to a more communication-based approach that focuses on the communicative goals of language learning. In brief, teachers need to realize that "learning the skills of English is closely related to using them, and . . . the teacher should focus attention on making the classroom a place where the use of language is strongly supported" (Tchudi & Mitchell, 1989, p. 217).

In addition to possessing advanced language proficiency and a comprehensive knowledge of CLT principles and teaching techniques, EFL teachers require cross-cultural awareness combined with their local knowledge. Mckay (2000) talks about this as "global thinking, local teaching," meaning that local teachers should find ways in which they integrate the teaching of target cultural norms and values with the teaching of local cultural behaviors and traditions. "Teaching EFL in the Chinese cultural context also implies that EFL teachers should endeavor to develop learners' cultural capacity, which means helping students gain knowledge about the foreign culture and cultivating their competence in the interactions between the foreign culture and the home culture" (Chen, 1990, p. 13). Hence, a fourth suggestion involves encouraging EFL teachers (both NESTs and NNESTs) to imbue their teaching with global as well as local knowledge, and as a result instill this dual awareness in their learners.

References

Adamson, B., & Morris, P. (1997). The English curriculum in China. Comparative Education Review, 41(1), 3-26.

Bachman, L. F. (1990). Fundamental considerations in language testing. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.

Chen, S. (1990). Culture in foreign language education: A proposition for EFL in China. Unpublished PhD Thesis, La Trobe University, Australia.

Hu, G. W. (2005). 'CLT is best for China'-an untenable absolutist claim. ELT Journal 59(1), 65-68.

Huang, Y. Y., & Xu, H. L. (1999, November-December). Trends in English language education in China. ESL Magazine 2(6), 26-28.

Mckay, S. L. (2000). Teaching English as an international language. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.

Ng, C., & Tang, E. (2000). Teachers' Needs in the Process of EFL Reform in China—A Report From Shanghai. Retrieved on July 9, 2006, fromhttp://sunzi1.lib.hku.hk/hkjo/view/10/1000116.pdf#search=%22EFL%20in%20China%22

Niu, Q., & Wolff, M. (2004). English as a foreign language: The modern day trojan horse? Retrieved on July 17, 2006, from http://www.usingenglish.com/esl-in-china/

Shao, T. (2005, October). Teaching English in China: NNESTs need not apply? NNEST Newsletter 7(2). Retrieved on September 9, 2006, fromhttp://www.tesol.org/s_tesol/docs/4700/4633.html?nid=2982

Tang, D. G., & Absalom, D. (2000). Teaching across cultures: Considerations for western EFL teachers in China. Retrieved on July 9, 2006, fromhttp://sunzi1.lib.hku.hk/hkjo/view/5/500050.pdf#search=%22EFL%20in%20China%22

Tchudi, S., & Mitchell, D. (1989). Explorations in the teaching of English. New York: Harper Collins Publishers.

Yu, Yang got her MA degree in TESOL from the Ohio State University (OSU) and is currently pursuing her doctoral studies at OSU. This article is based on a presentation she made at the Ohio TESOL conference in November 2005.



Announcements Announcements and Information

TESOL Annual Convention & Graduate Student Forum

The 41st Annual TESOL Convention and Exhibit (TESOL 2007) will take place at the Seattle Convention Center, Washington, USA, on March 21-24, 2007. Save these dates!

The 7th Annual Graduate Student Forum at the 41st Annual TESOL Convention in Seattle, Washington, USA, will take place on Tuesday, March 20, 2007. The deadline for proposal submissions is October 28, 2006. For more details visit http://www.tesol.org/s_tesol/sec_document.asp?CID=1237&DID=6281.

TESOL Awards and Grants
For a list of TESOL awards and grants you might consider applying for, visit http://www.tesol.org/s_tesol/bin.asp?CID=125&DID=2166&DOC=FILE.PDF

Position Statement Against Discrimination of Nonnative Speakers of English in the Field of TESOL (March 2006)
All educators should be evaluated within the same criteria. Nonnative English-speaking educators should not be singled out because of their native language. TESOL strongly opposes discrimination against nonnative English speakers in the field of English language teaching.

To read the full text of this document or to download printable copies, go to http://www.tesol.org/s_tesol/bin.asp?CID=32&DID=5889&DOC=FILE.PDF.

NNEST Resources
Are you looking for interesting resources for NNESTs? If so, you should visit the "Resources" section of our NNEST Caucus Web site:http://nnest.moussu.net/resources.html.

Also, if you know about other relevant resources (e.g., Web sites, publications, press releases, tips) that could be posted in this section, we encourage you to share this information with us by contacting the web manager, Ana Wu, at awu@ccsf.edu. Help us keep this list very useful by including current and comprehensive information! 

Book Announcement
Llurda, E. (2006). (Ed.) Non-native Language Teachers: Perceptions, challenges and contributions to the profession. New York: Springer.

The book Non-native Language Teachers: Perceptions, Challenges and Contributions to the Profession, edited by Enric Llurda and published by Springer, has just appeared in its paperback version (ISBN: 038732822X). The book contains discussions and original research providing innovative approaches to the study of nonnative language teachers, written by the following researchers, based in nine different countries: Eszter Benke, George Braine, Vivian Cook, Josep Cots, Tracey Derwing, Josep Díaz, Ofra Inbar-Lourie, David Lasagabaster, Jun Liu, Enric Llurda, Ernesto Macaro, Arthur McNeill, Peter Medgyes, Marko Modiano, Murray Munro, Dorota Pacek, Kanavilil Rajagopalan, and Juan Sierra.

Workshop Announcement
American University in Washington, DC, presents the 2007 Summer TESOL Institute Intensive Workshop: "NNESTs at Work: Principles and Practices for Nonnative English Speaking Teachers" (offered on either a one- or three-credit basis). 
 
Featured workshop leaders:

  • George Braine, Chinese University of Hong Kong
  • Ahmar Mahboob, University of Sydney, Australia
  • Lia Kamhi Stein, California State University 
  • Brock Brady, American University

For details or to register, call 202-885-2582; e-mail tesol@american.edu; or visit http://www.american.edu/tesol.



About This Community About the Nonnative English Speakers in TESOL Caucus (NNEST)

The Nonnative English Speakers in TESOL Caucus was established in October 1998 to strengthen effective teaching and learning of English around the world while respecting individuals' language rights.

1. Caucus Major Goals:

  • to create a nondiscriminatory professional environment for all TESOL members regardless of native language and place of birth
  • to encourage the formal and informal gatherings of nonnative speakers at TESOL and affiliate conferences
  • to encourage research and publications on the role of nonnative speaker teachers in ESL and EFL contexts
  • to promote the role of nonnative speaker members in TESOL and affiliate leadership positions

Membership is open to all interested TESOL members, both native and nonnative speakers of English alike!

2. Web Site: http://nnest.moussu.net

3. Discussion E-List:

Visit http://www.tesol.org/getconnected to join NNEST-L, the open discussion list for NNEST members, or visit http://lists.tesol.org/read/?forum=nnest-l if you are already an e-list subscriber.

4. NNEST Caucus Community Leaders and Volunteers 2006-2007:

Chair: Karen Newman (newman.301@osu.edu)
Chair-Elect: Luciana C. de Oliveira (luciana@purdue.edu)
Newsletter Editor: Sandra Zappa-Hollman (sczappa@interchange.ubc.ca)
Editorial Volunteers: Kyung-Hee Bae (kbae@uh.edu) & Lisya Seloni (seloni.1@osu.edu)
Web Manager: Ana Wu (awu@ccsf.edu)
E-List Manager : Rosie Maum (rosiefiume@aol.com)
Assistant E-List Manager: Aiden Yeh (aidenyeh@hotmail.com)
Historian: George Braine (georgebraine@cuhk.edu.hk)

 


NNEST Newsletter Call for Submissions

Do you have some thoughts on the status of nonnative English speakers in TESOL (NNEST)? Do you have personal stories to share that are related to NNEST issues? Do you have some helpful tips for other NNESTs? If you do, please consider submitting an article to the NNEST Newsletter for consideration. The deadline for submissions for the May 2007 issue is March 30, 2007.
 
Submission Guidelines

Any of the following types of submissions are welcome:

Feature Articles (1200-1500 words) related to teacher education, research, professional development, program administration, and sociocultural issues

Brief Reports (600-900 words), such as book reviews and reports on conference presentations and papers

Personal Accounts (500-700 words) related to NNEST issues

Announcements (50-75 words) of forthcoming presentations and meetings on issues related to NNESs as well as forthcoming articles and books on issues related to NNESTs

All documents need to be formatted in Microsoft Word (.doc). The editors reserve the right to edit any materials submitted for publication in order to enhance clarity or style.

Please send all manuscripts as an e-mail attachment to the NNEST editor, Sandra Zappa-Hollman (sczappa@interchange.ubc.ca).

 


NNEST Newsletter Mission Statement

Purpose
The NNEST Newsletter is the official newsletter of the Nonnative English Speakers in TESOL (NNEST) Caucus. The purpose of the NNEST Newsletter is three-fold: to inform, to inspire, and to invite. First, the newsletter informs NNEST Caucus members about issues, developments, and activities that are related to the professional status of nonnative English speakers in TESOL and related professions. Second, the newsletter inspires current and prospective NNEST Caucus members by providing stories of successes and struggles of NNEST professionals as well as of students, colleagues, and administrators who may be native or nonnative speakers of English. Third, the newsletter invites NNEST Caucus members to share information, insights, and experiences related to NNEST issues.

Audience
The primary audience of the NNEST Newsletter is the members of the NNEST Caucus. The caucus members are native and nonnative speakers of English from various geographic and institutional contexts. They are teachers, researchers, and administrators as well as graduate students at various stages of professional development. All of them are interested in and concerned about issues surrounding the professional status of nonnative English speakers in TESOL. The audience also includes potential members of the NNEST Caucus who wish to gain insights into the NNEST Caucus and its activities.

Vision
The NNEST Newsletter contributes significantly to TESOL by addressing issues that affect a significant portion of TESOL members: nonnative English speakers. To native English speakers (NESs) in TESOL, the newsletter offers resources for understanding and addressing NNEST issues in ethical, effective, and informed ways. In order to enhance its appeal to NES members and to facilitate mutual understanding between NESs and NNESs, the newsletter seeks to increase submissions from NESs in the profession. It also seeks to further raise the awareness of the issue of diversity by encouraging submissions that address how NNEST issues interact with issues faced by other caucuses and interest sections.

Because NNEST issues affect all members of TESOL directly or indirectly, the NNEST Newsletter will continue to contribute to the overall mission of TESOL by

1. promoting a better understanding of the status of nonnative English speakers in TESOL
2. prompting the discussion of NNEST issues among all TESOL members
3. providing resources to NNEST Caucus members as well as TESOL members in general