PAIS Newsletter

PAIS News, Volume 3:1 (October 2007)

by User Not Found | 10/28/2011
In This Issue...
  • Leadership Updates
    • Letter From the Chair
    • Letter From the Coeditor
  • Articles
    • Insights of an Experienced Language Program Manager
    • Equalizing Strategies in Teacher Supervision
  • Presentation Summaries
    • Do You Love Your Job? Why Not?
    • Program Administration/ESL in Higher Education: In-Service Training in Language Program Administration
  • Announcements and Information
    • TESOL Position Statement on Teacher Credentialing for Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages in Primary and Secondary Schools
    • Coming Soon From TESOL Publications
    • PAIS Newsletter Submission Guidelines
    • PAIS Newsletter Mission Statement

Leadership Updates Letter From the Chair

Tara Neuwirth, PAIS Chair,

Dear PAIS Members:

I am pleased to welcome you to our new PAIS e-newsletter! This newsletter has been a collaborative effort by our three volunteer coeditors: Kristin Hiller (UC Riverside International Education Programs in Beijing, China), Britt Johnson (Albany Park Community Center, Chicago, Illinois), and Marina Cobb (Defense Language Institute Foreign Language Center, Monterey, California). I would like to thank them for their dedication and professionalism in bringing forth this first issue. We owe this newsletter to them.

Through this effort, as well as the development of a PAIS Web site in the coming year, we are hoping to expand our interest section's membership base by reaching out to a more diversified population of program administrators. Program administration cuts across all levels, from K-12 to higher education, in ESL and EFL settings, serving international and immigrant populations—just look at the three institutions and settings represented by our e-newsletter coeditors! We invite you all to share your interests, concerns, and successes in this newsletter. Although our educational settings vary widely, all language program administrators have one thing in common: the challenge of a wide and deep range of responsibilities. Our daily work encompasses advocacy, budgets, curriculum, staff and instructor supervision and professional development, student services, program promotion, leadership, and institutional and international issues.

Ironically, one area that gets the least attention is one that many of us most need and want: time and resources for our own professional development. I hope that this newsletter will provide some such support. I invite you to read and contribute!

Letter From the Coeditor

Kristin Hiller, Beijing, China,

It is my pleasure to have played a part in the production of volume 3 of the PAIS Newsletter, particularly after such a long hiatus in its publication. My coeditors—Britt Johnson and Marina Cobb—and I are grateful to PAIS Chair Tara Neuwirth for the support and encouragement she has offered in the restoration of this newsletter.

The issue you are reading now was very much a group effort. In addition to working with me from the very start in revitalizing and editing the newsletter—reviewing the mission, developing our editorial vision and schedule, reviewing submissions—Ms. Cobb and Ms. Johnson have also contributed much of the content of this issue. Ms. Cobb offers the insights she gained from an interview with Dr. Christine Campbell, a woman who has held a leadership position in language education for many years. Ms. Johnson reminds us all of ways we can let our staff and teachers know that they are valued. She also summarizes the PAIS/ESL in Higher Ed Intersection Session on inservice training for program administrators that she participated in at TESOL 2007 in Seattle. Another session from the convention in Seattle is summarized by copresenters Teresa Pargeter and Theresé Tishakov. Their research into job satisfaction yielded interesting results regarding what people say they are looking for in a job and what they actually value in the jobs they hold—food for thought for administrators looking to recruit and retain faculty and staff.

Together with Britt Johnson, Marina Cobb, and Tara Neuwirth, I encourage you to contribute pieces for the next issue of the PAIS Newsletter. You can find our submission guidelines in the Announcements and Information section at the end of this issue. We welcome a variety of submissions, from articles, book reviews, and conference summaries to interviews, tips, and news items.

We hope you enjoy reading this issue, and we hope to hear from you!

Best wishes,


Articles Insights of an Experienced Language Program Manager

Marina Cobb, Academic Specialist, Middle East School III, Defense Language Institute Foreign Language Center,

For one of my assignments in the doctoral program in Organization and Leadership at the University of San Francisco School of Education, I interviewed a manager whose leadership style I felt I wanted to emulate. I chose to interview Dr. Christine Campbell, a professor and the second ranking female manager at the Defense Language Institute Foreign Language Center (DLIFLC). The institution currently numbers over 1,600 civilian faculty and several thousand military students studying about 30 foreign languages on its main site at the Presidio of Monterey. Its satellites number several hundred more faculty and students at any given time.

Dr. Campbell is currently the assistant provost of the Directorate of Evaluation and Standardization (ES), a large directorate numbering over 100 faculty members. ES runs the design and administration of the Oral Proficiency Interviews and the Defense Language Proficiency Tests in all languages for resident students at DLIFLC as well as for military linguists in the field. This directorate also processes the students' interim and end-of-course feedback, conducts institutional research, and so forth. Dr. Campbell assists the associate provost of ES in managing test designers, test administrators, subject matter experts, researchers, project managers, and others, including several deans who head various subdivisions of her directorate.

It has always been my perception that Dr. Campbell (to whom almost everyone refers by her first name) is quite uniformly respected and liked at DLIFLC. Her presence commands attention, yet she exudes warmth and genuine care for the people around her. In the past, she served as the dean of one of the institution's language schools for a number of years. It is not always easy for a dean to be on her employees' best side, especially in times of change, rapid growth of the faculty body, heightened security concerns, and increased proficiency requirements for military linguists. All schoolhouse deans occasionally have to take disciplinary action against employees, including termination of employment. I know that Dr. Campbell has been no exception and firmly stood her ground when she had to. Deans also require adherence to current teaching methodology, which may create a considerable amount of turmoil for a certain part of the teacher population who are more traditional in their approaches.

I have known Dr. Campbell for the past 7 to 8 years since I started at DLIFLC, and I have always noticed a certain air of positivity, sincerity, and goodwill about her. I have heard plenty of anecdotal evidence of Dr. Campbell's popularity among faculty, such as positive comments about her unwavering adherence to the open-door policy in the school, which inevitably resulted in her having to work long hours after school was done for the day. I have heard people speculate that her retirement party (hopefully in the distant future) would be hard to accommodate because it would attract hundreds of well-wishers.

For this interview, I met with Dr. Campbell in her office as her division was getting ready to move to a different location (a common occurrence at the rapidly growing DLIFLC). Dr. Campbell was welcoming as usual and displayed her trademark hospitality with which she treats faculty members regardless of rank. I really wanted to know what underlying assumptions and views on leadership had shaped her managerial behavior. During the interview, Dr. Campbell summarized her leadership principles and beliefs as follows:

  1. Belief in employee empowerment, including providing genuine positive reinforcement. People recognize idle, superficial praise, but heartfelt encouragement will inspire people to push to meet the leader's expectations.
  2. Mentoring, that is, providing necessary guidance, as a subset of empowerment. Encouragement alone is not enough; the leader needs to invest time in helping people grow.
  3. Situational leadership rooted in emotional intelligence. Emotional intelligence helps leaders assess situations and people appropriately in order to decide when to be democratic and when to be directive or autocratic and "heavy-handed." It is easy to say that the leader should always be democratic. In practice, decisions to apply a particular style of leadership are people-dependent and situation-dependent.
  4. Application of measured empathy. Empathy is key to being able to lead people. However, too much empathy may result in a leader being excessively soft and unable to take the necessary steps to discipline employees or resolve conflict.
  5. Conviction that most people come to work wanting to do a good job. Only a very small percentage of employees turn out to be hopelessly lazy or dysfunctional in some way. For most people, the need for social acceptance and the need to feel appreciated as a worker are some of the most powerful motivators. The leader needs to recognize that, even in the case of employees who do not get along with others, there is still a need for approval and acceptance underneath. Good leaders look for ways to turn people around by providing opportunities for them to gain both professional appreciation and social acceptance. 
  6. Transformational management: a belief that through empowerment people can be transformed. The bottom line is that through empowerment, a leader can facilitate a process of transformation in the subordinates: transform below-average workers to average, average to above-average, and above-average to excellent performers.

Because one of my research interests is female leadership, my next question to Dr. Campbell was about perceived differences in leadership styles between men and women in program administration positions. Dr. Campbell replied that she believed that leadership traits were much more person-specific than gender-specific. She commented that one might encounter very emotional, ego-sensitive, and thin-skinned male managers as well as quite unemotional, "tough as nails" women managers. One of the most serious pitfalls a manager can have—allowing professional jealousy to color relationships at work—can be a serious pitfall not only for women but also for men, despite the traditional beliefs.

Dr. Campbell commented that back in 1987 when she entered her first management position, there was a preconceived notion that female managers were more emotional and perhaps more prone to holding grudges. However, in light of her 20 years of experience, she did not believe there were really any gender-dependent trends, except for possibly one: women managers may be more likely to share their feelings, such as frustration, stress, and so forth, with their manager colleagues. In response to a question about differing expectations for female and male managers, Dr. Campbell further commented that she did not think that there were distinct differences in expectations nowadays, at least in federal employment where the environment is very controlled in this regard. She further commented that, rather than trying to emulate a stereotypical masculine management style, a female manager should demonstrate her "toughness" by showing stamina and ability to work long hours as well as through a rational approach to problem-solving combined with measured empathy.

Dr. Campbell's advice for all managers with demanding jobs was to reconcile their family and professional obligations early, not wait for something "big and terrible" to happen to alert them to this need such as a divorce or a serious problem with a child. High-level program administrators should be very vigilant of their commitments to family and friends and ever mindful of the need to maintain a balance between career, family, and friends as well as their own spiritual needs and interests. She reiterated several times the importance of setting boundaries at work, giving only "so much blood" to the job, that is, working 65 hours a week instead of 100 (her estimate of how many hours some senior leaders put in). 

In summary, Dr. Campbell views the ability to apply situational leadership as the most important factor in making a program administrator successful. Her advice for new and aspiring leaders was (a) to practice situational leadership and other aforementioned principles (empower, mentor, and transform employees; apply "measured empathy," etc.), (b) to continually search for balance in work and life issues, and (c) to learn to control any feelings of jealousy they may experience.

An important source of Dr. Campbell's long-term success as a program administrator is the fact that she is a well-balanced individual who draws from her inner strength. I believe that it is very important to display a caring attitude toward the people one supervises. It is easier to accept the unpleasant aspects of being supervised if people know that the leader has a genuine interest in them and truly cares about them personally and professionally. On behalf of the PAIS Newsletter editors, I express sincere gratitude to Dr. Christine Campbell for granting this interview. 

Christine M. Campbell (PhD, Purdue University) is assistant provost, Directorate of Evaluation and Standardization, the Defense Language Institute, Presidio of Monterey, California. Her research interests are language assessment and language anxiety. She has been invited to write chapters for a number of books, including "Articulation and Assessment," with coauthor Theresa Austin, in New Visions in Foreign and Second Language Education (2004), a discussion rooted in the New Visions movement housed at the National K-12 Foreign Language Resource Center at Iowa State University and coordinated through the American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages. She is also coauthor of the "In Other Professional Journals" column in the Modern Language Journal.  She is a member of Phi Beta Kappa and was named Distinguished Education Alumna by Purdue University.

Marina Cobb has taught both English and Russian as foreign languages and has served as department chair, faculty development specialist, and academic specialist at DLIFLC. She holds a BA in Teaching EFL and a MATFL and is currently a doctoral student in Organization and Leadership at the University of San Francisco School of Education.


Copyright notice: Articles that appear in the PAIS electronic newsletter with bylines are not copyrighted by TESOL or by PAIS. Authors retain copyright of their own work. Although TESOL encourages readers to share the contents of the newsletter with interested colleagues and students, articles may not be reprinted or posted online without the express written permission of the author.


Equalizing Strategies in Teacher Supervision

Britt Johnson,

In language program environments, there is a power differential in professional relationships between language teachers and their supervisors. Although complete equity is not achievable in terms of hierarchical power in these relationships, there are many opportunities, in every workplace interaction, in every decision-making process, for language program administrators and supervisors to empower those they supervise. Valuing our teachers, if left in the realm of feeling and perspective alone, will not inspire creativity and development in those we supervise. Valuing must be a stance, a plan, and an action that is intentionally made a part of our relationships with teachers. The valuing behaviors I discuss are listening; showing that you are listening; being clear, comprehensive, and transparent; respecting teachers' professionalism; assuming positive intent; voicing awareness of challenges; involving supervisees in decision-making processes; and being accountable. Taken together, these strategies can "equalize" relations between teachers and supervisors, to the extent the relationship structure allows, and generate both motivation and mutual professional respect.

This strategy, though it looks simplistic, permeates all other strategies. Here is one example of a statement that caught my attention: "Thinking together implies that you no longer take your position as final. You relax your grip on certainty and listen to the possibilities that result . . . possibilities that might not otherwise have occurred" (Isaacs, 2006, p. 607).

In order to come to a shared solution to problems, in order to generate and sustain trust on the part of your staff, you must be willing to listen to and integrate their perspectives.

Prove You Are Listening
Even though this is obviously connected to listening, I think the act of listening bears further explanation. Make it clear to your staff that you have heard them, that you understood their whole message, and that you recognize the feelings and values behind the message as valid. According to Stewart et al. (2006), this "empathetic listening" involves intentional nonverbal behavior such as posture, eye contact, and nonverbal sounds. Stewart et al. also stated the need for encouraging continuation by asking specific questions, clarifying questions, or simply asking speakers to elaborate further. The authors' final element of empathetic listening is reflection, which shows how you, the listener, have processed and understood what the speaker has communicated to you. Different approaches (not exclusive of each other) to reflection include paraphrasing the message, offering an example that may illustrate what the speaker was trying to say, and stating the feelings and values that you perceive to lie beneath the message.

Be Clear, Comprehensive, and Transparent 
The idea of transparency as useful is not new. In 1990, Gardner listed explaining as one of the most important functions of leadership, stating that people want to know why they are asked to do things. Reina and Reina (2006) took it one step further by stating what happens when transparency is absent: "When people don't have the facts, they tend to make them up, and rarely are they positive" (p. 37). They recognize that leaders often withhold information unintentionally, for the simple fact that they are under pressure and don't take the time to be transparent. One example of transparency is clarifying the process of disciplinary procedure. Explaining that procedure to supervisees assures them that the consequence of termination for any staff is a final step in a thoroughly explored and documented succession of actions. Taking the time to recognize their fears and concerns helps them to feel more informed and more cognizant of supervisors' efforts and intentions.

Respect Teachers' Professionalism 
There are many ways to let teachers know that you respect them as professionals. A general phrase that sums this up is giving "freedom and flexibility within clear parameters" (Reina & Reina, 2006, p. 63). Different people have different ways of arriving at the same place. Nowhere is this more evident than in the field of language education. If staff are moving within the parameters supervisors have set, then unique approaches, styles, and perspectives can surface freely. Vocal observation and intentional appreciation of different ways of teaching are the clearest path to showing respect for teachers' professionalism.

Assume Positive Intent 
If I enter into a conversation with a colleague with a negative assumption of his or her intentions or motivations, I am unable to have a successful communication with that person. Negative expectations can be a result of past experiences with the interlocutor, or past experiences with similar events, or with events that have little or nothing to do with the subject of the discussion. The end result of negative assumption is generally the same regardless of the source of negativity—defensiveness, stubbornness, aggressiveness, inflexibility, and sometimes indifference. Wilmot (2006, p. 489) discussedgenerative and degenerative spirals as alternative communication patterns that we engage in. He suggested that one way of breaking a degenerative spiral is to change our behavior.

Changing a negative pattern of communication is a matter of training yourself to question your first judgment and first feeling, both of which are immediate and inevitable. For example, as soon as I perceive that someone is questioning my work ethic, or accusing me of something I feel I am not guilty of, I would try to do what does not come naturally, namely, get more information about my interlocutor's perspective, ask questions, and make sure that I have understood correctly and am not misinterpreting the message. Basically, I am assuming that I will learn something useful, that my interlocutor's perspective and feelings have validity (even if it is discovered that those feelings were ungrounded), and that I will gain a new perspective on my behavior and feelings as well as those of my interlocutor. Even for the most secure and seasoned professional, this takes training, practice, and continued self-discipline.

Voice Your Awareness of Challenges
Gardner (1990) said that the best way to inspire creativity and good communication among the levels of an organization is to make two points primary and visible in organizational culture: (a) "You will know what's going on" and (b) "Your voice will be heard" (p. 86). The first point was covered earlier in the discussion of transparency, but the second is the other side of that same coin. Representing supervisees' voices to other levels of the organization is a necessity. You are a two-way conduit between higher levels of management and those you supervise. Effective supervising communicators don't just pass down policy and deliver performance reviews; rather, they let the organization know how policy and day-to-day decisions affect the staff they supervise, and they may play a decisive role in improvement of policies and decisions based on that awareness.

Involve Them in Decision Making Whenever Possible
Not all decision processes can be shared, for ethical and legal reasons. However, there are many opportunities to hear the voices of those we supervise, to reward their creativity and investment in organizational community. Supervisees are the direct link to learners. Bailey (2006) encouraged teacher supervisors to allow effective teachers to practice with relative autonomy: "the empowerment of language teachers depends in part on supervisors recognizing that effective and professionally prepared teachers should have a great deal of autonomy, in both the decisions they make and the actions they take" (p. 76). She also recognized that how much autonomy is given depends on the performance of the teacher in relation to organizational expectations. The point is that alongside noticing areas for improvement, supervisors must recognize teacher effectiveness. They must actively look for opportunities to loosen supervisory control to allow those skills breathing space.

Gardner (1990) pointed out that "the taking of responsibility is at the heart of leadership" (p. 152). Leaders must be willing to take risks by vesting staff with leadership tasks or by openly incorporating constituents' input in decision-making processes. Only in this way can supervisors expect staff to feel motivated and positive and to contribute in creative ways. If this leadership-sharing is absent or insufficient, we run the risk of losing their full participation. As leaders, we have an obligation to counter that negative potential. 

Be Accountable
Accountability is a word used in many contexts. Often we think of it in terms of outcomes, production, doing what we have said we will do. The meaning I refer to here, however, is the taking of responsibility for one's own values, viewpoints, statements, and actions. In my opinion, the most important element within accountability for leaders is humility. Martinuzzi (2007) clearly explained its usefulness: "We often confuse humility with timidity. . . . It's a lack of arrogance, not a lack of aggressiveness in the pursuit of achievement. . . . It opens us up to possibilities, as we choose open-mindedness and curiosity over protecting our point of view" ( ¶7, 9). Martinuzzi offered five suggestions for practicing humility: (1) stop talking and listen if you find yourself in a "contest" situation, (2) use the phrase "You are right" to affirm others' values, (3) reflect on whether your coaching of others is of more benefit to you or them, (4) seek input on your leadership effectiveness, and (5) give credit where credit is due. Although this is already a substantial list, I would add "admit your mistakes" for the purpose of rebuilding trust and moving forward. Some feel that admission of a mistake only makes colleagues disrespect you, but in my personal experience, it has had exactly the opposite effect.

Respect for and trust in supervisees are the ingredients necessary to apply these strategies effectively and successfully. Supervisees' respect for and trust in you—the result of your initiation of that process—generate a true collaboration and mutual sense of value equality in the workplace.

Bailey, K. M. (2006). Language teacher supervision. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Gardner, J. W. (1990). On leadership. New York: Free Press.

Isaacs, W. (2006). A conversation with a center, not sides. In J. Stewart (Ed.), Bridges, not walls (9th ed., pp. 606-612). New York: McGraw-Hill.

Martinuzzi, B. (2007) The most beautiful word in the English language. Retrieved July 9, 2007, from

Reina, D. S., & Reina, M. L. (2006). Trust and betrayal in the workplace: Building effective relationships in your organization. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler Publishers.

Stewart, J. (Ed.). (2006). Bridges, not walls (9th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.

Wilmot, W. W. (2006). Communication spirals, paradoxes, and conundrums. In J. Stewart (Ed.) Bridges, not walls (9th ed., pp. 489-501). New York: McGraw-Hill.

Britt Johnson is currently program coordinator of the Adult Education Department at the Albany Park Community Center in Chicago, Illinois. She has been a teacher supervisor/administrator at the center since 2004. She has taught ESL to adult beginners, higher ed EFL in Japan, academic public speaking, academic speaking and listening, and secondary EFL in Poland.

Copyright notice: Articles that appear in the PAIS electronic newsletter with bylines are not copyrighted by TESOL or by PAIS. Authors retain copyright of their own work. Although TESOL encourages readers to share the contents of the newsletter with interested colleagues and students, articles may not be reprinted or posted online without the express written permission of the author.

Presentation Summaries Do You Love Your Job? Why Not?

Teresa Pargeter, ESL instructor,, and Theresé Tishakov, Director Enrollment/Career Services, Graduate School of Language and Educational Linguistics, Monterey Institute of International Studies,

Job satisfaction, a matter of one's contentment with one's employment, is a concern for most when seeking a job. For language educators, job satisfaction is a hot topic because of the demands put on teachers to be creative, organized, and hard working while often receiving lower pay and fewer benefits than do other professionals with similar experience and education. Inspired by several discussions about job satisfaction and the factors that affect one's level of satisfaction, we undertook a survey of language professionals on the issue. The results were presented and discussed at the 2007 TESOL Convention in the session entitled "Do You Love Your Job? Why Not?"

An electronic survey was sent via e-mail to alumni of the Monterey Institute of International Studies MA in Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages and Teaching a Foreign Language program during the spring of 2007. The survey was sent to 407 alumni and 84 responses were received. Respondents were asked to consider their job satisfaction in regard to the type of work they would like to have, the geographic location, salary, and other factors. Respondents were asked to explain what factors they enjoy most about their current employment and what factors frustrate them the most.

The respondents ranged in age from 25 to 80, with an average age of 40; 76% were female and 24% male. The majority of respondents (75%) indicated they were still in the field, whereas 25% had left language education. The respondents worked in the following type of employment: 76% classroom teacher, 25% program administration, 25% teacher training, 19% materials development. Their employment setting was listed as follows: 50% university/university extension teaching, 25% other, 20% community college, 15% K-12, and 8% adult/community education.

Analysis of the survey results showed that though alumni have varying degrees of job satisfaction, most are satisfied overall in their jobs despite many obstacles. For example, one respondent described a typical obstacle in the field: "I was considered a 'temporary, casual hire' for 16 years prior to promotion. It takes a long time to get something full-time with benefits, but I love my job so much I hung in there."

The bulk of respondents stated that the type of work and a position's geographic location were the greatest factors considered when seeking employment. This is an interesting contrast between the factors that respondents said were most necessary for job satisfaction and what actually gave them job satisfaction. They listed livable wage/benefits, administrative support, students, and colleagues as the factors most needed for job satisfaction, whereas the factors that actually gave respondents the most satisfaction were students, colleagues, and flexibility in teaching. Clearly practical living considerations are critical in choosing a job, yet those factors are often not the ones that provide the most fulfillment to language professionals once employed.

For the 25% of respondents no longer in the field, though the reasons for leaving varied, salary was stated as a significant factor in their decision to leave. When asked what satisfied these respondents most when working in the field, they cited their students as the greatest source of contentment in their ESL/EFL jobs, which is an encouraging finding for all in the field of education.

Monterey Institute of International Studies (MIIS) alumna Teresa Pargeter has experience teaching ESL/EFL in various settings and fellow alumna Theresé Tishakov is an enrollment and career advisor at MIIS.

Copyright notice: Articles that appear in the PAIS electronic newsletter with bylines are not copyrighted by TESOL or by PAIS. Authors retain copyright of their own work. Although TESOL encourages readers to share the contents of the newsletter with interested colleagues and students, articles may not be reprinted or posted online without the express written permission of the author.


Program Administration/ESL in Higher Education: In-Service Training in Language Program Administration

Britt Johnson,

This panel discussion was an exploration of both accredited preservice training and types of inservice training strategies researched and employed by inservice administrators.

Tara Neuwirth and Denise Babel shared their experience of peer support as an in-service training tool within the University of California (UC) Academic Coordinator Consortium. The Consortium, of which they were members, consisted of workshop/seminar gatherings of administrators across a number of different programs within the UC system. Examples of issues covered were advocacy, morale, marketing and contracts, classroom practice, workplace programs, human resources issues, placement and exit testing, and the further development of the peer support tool itself. They emphasized the value of this formalized team approach as conducive to the sharing of knowledge, information, access, and advocacy. This type of cross-program collaboration serves as a venue in which program administrators can support each other face-to-face and feel the value of what they do as reflected in their peers. 

Britt Johnson discussed individual strategies a program administrator could employ. She stated that reflective practice—constant self-review and intentional improvement of one's own performance—and the use of a variety of supervisory approaches to address different situations were necessary elements of continued development. Most important, though, was the ability to recognize the emotional element of inevitable miscommunication that can either derail or enhance good practice, and to train oneself how to manage one's own emotions while on the job.

Kathleen Bailey of the Monterey Institute of International Studies gave a thorough description of the Language Program Administration Certificate at that institution. The program includes coursework in teacher education, teacher supervision, marketing, accounting, budgeting, and a variety of electives that allow candidates to target their specific interests. The coursework itself includes investigation of actual programs, project work that centers on real leadership experiences, and a variety of internships that develop administrative skills. Dr. Bailey pointed out that this preservice training system had the strengths of outstanding students, excellent interdisciplinary cooperation, quality internship opportunities, highly effective administrators, and numerous sites at which teachers could observe practiced teachers in action.

MaryAnn Christison discussed the concept of effective leadership as researched by Murphy (1996). The conclusion of the study ranked the qualities of effective leadership as follows, most important to least: individual competence, experience in front lines of service, respect of customers, respect of colleagues, support of loved ones, formal education, support from the organization, support from the boss, other, and luck. The roles that an effective leader should fulfill are selecting the right people, connecting the right people to the right cause, solving problems as they arise, evaluating progress toward goals, negotiating resolutions to conflicts, healing wounds inflicted by change, protecting the work culture, and synergizing stakeholders to enable them to achieve and improve together.

In all, this was a very inspiring and comprehensive collection of information and ideas. I hope that it was as interesting and helpful for attendees as it was for me as a panel member.

Murphy, E. C. (1996). Leadership IQ. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons.

Copyright notice: Articles that appear in the PAIS electronic newsletter with bylines are not copyrighted by TESOL or by PAIS. Authors retain copyright of their own work. Although TESOL encourages readers to share the contents of the newsletter with interested colleagues and students, articles may not be reprinted or posted online without the express written permission of the author.


Announcements and Information TESOL Position Statement on Teacher Credentialing for Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages in Primary and Secondary Schools Click to view the article. [PDF]
Coming Soon From TESOL Publications

Vol. 3 in the Perspectives on Community College ESL Series (Craig Machado, Series Ed.) will be of relevance to language program administrators working in community colleges. The volume is titled Faculty, Administration, and the Working Environment and was edited by Jose Carmona. For additional recent and upcoming TESOL publications, visit these webpages:

PAIS Newsletter Submission Guidelines

Thank you for your interest in submitting a piece to publish in the Program Administration Interest Section (PAIS) Newsletter. We appreciate your input and your expertise. There may be other editorial considerations in addition to the points below, but adherence to and acceptance of the following is required.

  • Author information
    • Name and place of employment must be included in your submission.
    • Reliable contact information (telephone and e-mail) must be available to the editor, though it need not be listed in the newsletter if that is your preference.
  • Formatting
    • All submissions should be e-mailed as attached Word documents. Please name your document as follows: 
      surname type PAIS NL issue.doc (e.g., Johnson tip PAIS NL Sept 2007.doc)
    • Please follow APA style in your submissions.
    • Formatting in the newsletter is static. Any special formatting you use in your submission may be altered or deleted to fit standard formatting. Please understand that this is not editorial preference but is an organizationally imposed standard.
    • Please include headings in your submission. They should be formatted as follows: 
      First Level Heading
      Second Level Heading
      Third Level Heading
    • Photos and charts must be submitted in JPEG format in separate files. 
  • Submission types and word limits
    • Article (2,000 words)—Share your personal research results or literature review impacting language program administration.
    • Tip (500)—Tell us about a specific language program administration "best practice" that you have used or learned about.
    • Book/Article/Web Site Review (500)—Share your thoughts on current literature in the field that addresses language program administration issues.
    • Presentation Summary & Conference Report (500)—We encourage you to submit summaries of your recent relevant conference presentations. We also welcome reports from conference attendees. The conferences are not limited to those sponsored by TESOL and the affiliates but should be relevant to the interests of PAIS members and our mission.
    • Current Events (200)—What's happening in the field that language program administrators need to know about (events, conferences, language policy notices, political situations and changes that affect the field, etc.)?
    • Interview (700)—Send us a record of an interview with a program administrator who has knowledge and skill to share that contributes to the field of TESOL.
    • Member Voices (word limit to be set per issue-dependent on number and complexity of questions)—For each issue, the editors will pose a simple set of questions that members can submit answers to.
  • Abstract and author bio: You must include an abstract (max 50 words—not included in the word limits above) with each article, tip, review, presentation summary, or interview. You may also include an author bio of up to 25 words. Please place these items in the same document as your submission, between the title and the text.
  • Works cited: Any sources cited in your text must also be referenced at the end of your piece, using APA style.  
  • Deadlines: All submissions, regardless of type, are due for the September newsletter by July 15 and for the February/March newsletter by January 1. Deadline extensions will be announced via e-mail and will also eventually be posted on the PAIS Web site (currently under construction). Please state the newsletter issue for which you are submitting. Some accepted submissions may be published in future issues.
  • Calls for submission may contain a general theme for the upcoming issue. Submissions meeting all requirements that clearly reference these themes will receive priority consideration,
  • References to political entities, events, or situations must not be in opposition to official policy statements made by TESOL. 
  • Submissions should be respectful and professional in tone.
  • Copyright
    • Authors retain copyright to the material published in the PAIS Newsletter.
    • It is not permitted to lift content (including photos) from Web sites (including TESOL sites), even with attribution.
    • Please follow fair use copyright law.
Unless otherwise noted in the call for submissions, please send all submissions to Kris Hiller or In the subject line, write PAIS e-NL submission; in the body of your e-mail, please note the issue number you are submitting for, the submission type, and the word count (not including title, abstract, and author bio).

PAIS Newsletter Mission Statement

The goal of the PAIS Newsletter is to present information to program administrators from a variety of settings. It provides articles, columns, and review sections that keep the membership abreast of current administrative issues, new materials, and current trends in the fields of language teaching and administrative practice.

The PAIS Newsletter is oriented to program administrators from a variety of ESL and EFL contexts, including higher education (IEP, community college, university, etc.), adult and refugee education, and K–12 settings. Each of these arenas has administrators with varied experience and expertise, making for a broad and diverse readership.

1. The PAIS Newsletter is essentially a forum for administrative concerns where the membership can express their viewpoints.
2. The PAIS Newsletter is a source of information where the membership can learn about new program models for program management, student services, and curriculum design.
3. The PAIS Newsletter provides articles about administrative practices such as program evaluation, teaching effectiveness, budgeting, strategic planning, and programming for student services.
4. The contents are immediately accessible and practical. It publishes articles that are professional in style and the writing is clear and understandable.
5. The newsletter will balance items from the constituent audiences.