TEIS Newsletter

TEIS News, Volume 20:1 (December 2004)

by User Not Found | 10/31/2011
In This Issue...
  • Leadership Updates
    • Letter from the Chair
    • Letter From the Editor
    • Report on 2003-2004 Activities of the Teacher Education Interest Section
    • Minutes of Teacher Education Interest Section Open Business Meeting, March 31, 2004
  • Articles and Information
    • Voices From the Graduate Student Forum
    • Creating an ESOL Field Experience in Teacher Education Programs
    • English for the Nonnative English Speaking ESL Teacher Course
    • Mentoring Junior Teachers in a High School
    • News: TEIS Sponsors Electronic Village Online Session
  • Book Reviews
    • Book Review: Integrating English Language Learners in the Science Classroom
  • About This Member Community
    • Call for Contributions
    • TEIS Leadership Team 2004-2005
    • About the Teacher Education Interest Section

Leadership Updates Letter from the Chair

By Mark Tanner, email mark_tanner@byu.edu, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah, USA.

Greetings to all of you in the Teacher Education Interest Section (TEIS).

I want to thank all those who submitted articles for this newsletter. I also appreciate Chuang Wang's efforts in helping us get this newsletter organized and out by the deadline. I encourage each of you to help share the responsibility to make this newsletter a forum that will be not only interesting but also informative to our membership. There are several ways that you can help. You can review current materials that address issues relevant to teacher educators, or report on software/Internet teaching ideas. Did you have a successful presentation at the TESOL convention? Write a short report on the presentation for the newsletter. Do you have a query or issue that concerns you? The newsletter can be used as a way to present different viewpoints and share the wealth of our collective expertise.

TESOL 2005

We are now quickly approaching the 2005 TESOL Convention in San Antonio, Texas, USA. A number of informative and exciting sessions are scheduled. I want to extend a special thanks to all the proposal readers who so willingly gave their time this summer to review abstracts. The process this year was much improved over last year. A special thanks goes to Ju Young Song, a PhD student from Ohio State University. This was the second year that Ju Young helped with the proposal adjudication. I appreciate all of her hard work to help me solicit reviewers and organize the adjudication of the proposals. TEIS was given a total of 71 slots to fill but received over 250 abstracts. Again, as always, many more excellent proposals were submitted than could be accepted. If your proposal was not accepted, I urge you to consider resubmitting it for the 2006 convention in Tampa Bay, Florida, USA.

Graduate Student Forum, 2005

For those teacher educators who teach in TESOL or Applied Linguistics MA Programs, I hope you will encourage your graduate students to submit proposals for the 5th Annual Graduate Student Forum. The forum will be held on Tuesday, March 29, 2005, at the beginning of the 2005 TESOL Convention in San Antonio, Texas. Information regarding the forum can be obtained from the TESOL Web site. The host universities this year are California State University-Pomona, Southeast Missouri State University, and Seattle Pacific University.

E-Ballots

This year we will again hold our elections for TEIS board members electronically. A general call for candidates will be sent out to the TEIS membership around mid-January requesting candidates for those positions that need to be filled. Those interested in running for an office should submit a statement of interest (125 words) and a brief biography to Mark Tanner at mark_tanner@byu.edu by January 15, 2005. The electronic balloting will be held in February 2005. We will elect two IS representatives (one to immediately replace Stephen Stoynoff who was elected incoming chair-elect at the Long Beach Convention and a second to take the position vacated this past year by Cheri Micheau), a newsletter coeditor, a co-web manager, a co-manager of the electronic mailing list, and a new incoming chair-elect. I encourage all who are interested in serving on the TEIS board to submit their statements of interest.


Letter From the Editor

Chuang Wang, email cwang15@email.uncc.edu, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, NC, USA.

Welcome to the 2004 second issue of the TEIS newsletter! This is also our third e-section. If you would prefer to receive the TEIS newsletter at a different email address, please email your changes to members@tesol.org or make changes online athttp://www.tesol.org/.

In this issue, Barbara Hruska shares with us the field experience of elementary preservice teachers working with English for speakers of other languages (ESOL) students in Florida. Through this field experience, preservice classroom teachers get a good understanding of the needs of ESOL learners and learn effective teaching strategies. Furthermore, some elementary teacher candidates pursue working with ESOL students and intend to make this their future career focus.

D. Rachael Fecyk-Lamb presents a course that aims to meet some of the particular needs of nonnative English speaking (NNES) teacher candidates. The article addresses the identity issues, advantages of being a language learner, and the discrimination against NNES in the job market.

On the basis of her experience training English teachers in China, Liping Wang introduces the common difficulties of junior ESOL teachers in a high school in the People's Republic of China and the measures taken to help them with professional development.

Also in this issue,Monica Gruler briefly reviews the 4th Annual Graduate Student Forum at Long Beach, California, and Christina Emmert provides a book review about integrating English language learners in the science classroom.

If any of the articles in the current issue evokes a response or if you have new topics in mind, please refer to the Call for Contributions section. The submission deadline for the next newsletter is February 30, 2005.

It is our great regret that Su Motha has stepped down after years of service as newsletter editor. She has done a wonderful job and made a significant contribution to the transition of our newsletter from paper to electronic format. Her departure leaves the position of coeditor open. Interested candidates are urged to submit a 125-word statement of interest and a brief biography to Mark Tanner at mark_tanner@byu.edu by February 1, 2005.


Report on 2003-2004 Activities of the Teacher Education Interest Section

Shelley Wong, Immediate Past Chair, email mailto:wong.180@osu.edu, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USA.

Special activities:

Intersection: As primary sponsor, we sponsored "Bilingual Paraprofessionals: Human Resource or Endangered Species" with participation from Higher Education, Secondary, and Bilingual Interest Sections.

Teacher Education/Secondary/Higher Education/Bilingual Education
Bilingual Paraprofessionals: Human Resource or Endangered Species?
Shelley Wong, Theresa Austin, Frank Noji, Ellen Rintell, Myra Singnysane

We were also involved in a number of Intersections as secondary sponsors:

Video, Teacher Education/Secondary Schools
Video as Role Model
Barbara Morris, Johanna Katchen, Lilia Savova

English for Specific Purposes/Teacher Education
Training Teachers for ESP
Liz England, Chuang Wang, Karen Woodman

International Teaching Assistants/Teacher Education
Maximizing Microteaching
Ingrid Arneson, Allison Petro

Higher Education/Elementary Education/Secondary Education/Teacher Education
Meeting the Needs of Preservice Teachers in Higher Education
Nat Bartels, Lynore Carnuccio, Debra Giambo, Jim Kohn, Judy O'Loughlin, Mercedes Pichard, Lilia Savova, Karen Woodman

Open Meeting Wednesday. Number of attendees: 67

Issues Discussed: Sent delegates to Communications Committee Meeting (Comm Com): Meg Gebhardt and Barbara Hruska; Graduate Student Forum (Wendy Wang), Discussion Groups, Electronic Elections, Proposal Adjudication. (See minutes.)

No revisions to Governing Rules.

No planning meeting on Saturday; instead had networking Wednesday at Special Diversity Gathering

Newsletter

Editors: Su Motha and Chuang Wang
Chuang Wang will continue. We need to elect a replacement for Su Motha electronically.

We had successful electronic newsletters postconvention 2003 and preconvention 2004.

Special Project

Title: "Soaring Far, Catching Dreams of Diversity in Teacher Education."

We had 20 poster session presentations arranged in four time slots so that participants were able to gather handouts of teacher education reading lists, films, and other resources and network with others who are concerned about feminist pedagogy and critical multiculturalism in teacher education. The goal of the session was for those in caucuses and various interest sections who are concerned about diversity to think about ways to work together on paper, colloquia, and workshop proposals for TESOL 2005 in San Antonio. The event was attended by over 100 people. We printed 100 programs and ran out! Participants shared resources, ideas, and activities from EFL (English as a foreign language) and ESL (English as a second language) teacher education contexts addressing a wide range of concerns from nonnative English teaching professionals to gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgendered and friends to how to deal with bigotry and combat racism, injustice, and poverty to positive steps toward promoting peace and international understanding.

2004 Elections

Steve Stoynoff was elected chair-elect for 2004-2005. Rachel Grant was elected IS representative. There were 124 ballots counted in the electronic election.

Delegates to the 2005 IS Council: Rachel Grant and Valerie Jakar. We need to elect a replacement for Steve Stoynoff who was elected incoming chair and need to elect two alternates.

Report of Chair: Shelley Wong

Special Activities were particularly successful: The Diversity Gathering was very successful. Chuang Wang coconvened the gathering with Shelley Wong and had very tight electronic participation with the participants: We had a program with 20 sessions and many opportunities for networking. We worked closely with Laura Bryant who helped us with refreshments, easels, and ordering pencils.

Intersection cooperation was particularly strong because of the networking at the Saturday IS meeting the year before.

I want to thank the TEIS leadership team who worked together electronically and encourage Mark and Paula to make use of the electronic mailing list.

Adjudication of Proposals: Ju Young Song from Ohio State University worked very hard on the proposal adjudication in 2003 and has continued to do so this year. If we want someone to assume that job in the future we should amend our bylaws for an official person to do that work.

Another concern: Graduate Student Forum. This has been very successfully carried out year after year with host institutions working very hard.


Minutes of Teacher Education Interest Section Open Business Meeting, March 31, 2004

Mark Tanner, email mark_tanner@byu.edu, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah, USA.

I. Welcome and Introduction

2003-2004 Chair Shelley Wong called the meeting to order and welcomed all in attendance. She announced that the meeting time would be from 5:00 to 6:00 p.m. so that the room could be set up for the Diversity Gathering that would be held from 7:00 to 9:00 p.m. in the same room. Everyone at the meeting was invited to attend. Shelly then reviewed the agenda for the meeting.

Shelley announced that the Comm Com Open Meeting was also being held at the same time as our business meeting and asked for two volunteers from our IS to attend this meeting for about 30 minutes. Meg Gebhardt and Barbara Hruska attended the meeting.

II. Graduate Student Forum

Wendy Wang from Eastern Michigan University (one of the sponsoring institutions) was given 10 minutes to talk about this year's Graduate Student Forum. She indicated that there was excellent participation again this year. She praised those graduate students who were responsible for organizing the event and encouraged everyone in attendance to promote the forum among graduate students at their respective institutions.

III. Discussion Groups

Wendy informed the audience that we were given 12 discussion group slots to fill for the 2005 convention. She took a few minutes to solicit ideas from the audience. Those who indicated they could do a discussion group were encouraged to send the ideas to the incoming chair-elect Paula Golombek.

IV. Special Projects Grant

Shelley invited the audience to identify suggestions for a Special Projects grant for the 2004-2005 year. It was motioned and seconded that TEIS could be a cosponsor of a gathering at the 2005 convention with the Intercultural Communication Interest Section, Video IS, and the TESOLers for Social Responsibility Caucus.

V. Proposal Reading

Shelley indicated that we would need about 48 readers to adjudicate this year's convention proposals. Sign-up sheets were passed out to the audience to solicit participation.

VI. Selection of New Officers

Shelley reported that the online election had been held. A total of 124 people participated in the election. Steve Stoynoff was elected as incoming chair-elect, which meant that he would be vacating his position as an IS representative. Rachel Grant was elected as a new IS delegate for a three-year term (2004-2007) to replace outgoing IS Representative Cheri Micheau. Shelley indicated that Barbara Wright would continue for one more year as the electronic mailing list manager.

Time was given to Chair-Elect Mark Tanner to discuss the upcoming online election for officers. Job descriptions would be collected and a call for nominations would take place in September with elections to be held by the end of October. Duties for IS representative were reviewed, including the need for these individuals to attend the annual convention. One IS representative is responsible for the booth, a second is the historian, and the third is at-large. The officers to be elected include two IS representatives, a newsletter coeditor, and a manager of the electronic mailing list.

Shelley Wong again reminded all attendees to return at 7:00 p.m. for the Diversity Gathering.

Because the room had to be vacated, the meeting was adjourned at 6:10 p.m.



Articles and Information Voices From the Graduate Student Forum

Monica Gruler, student team leader, Eastern Michigan University, Ypsilanti, Michigan, USA.

On the morning of March 30, 2004, MATESOL students from all over the world gathered for the first time at the Hyatt Regency in Long Beach for the 4th Annual Graduate Student Forum (GSF) at the 38th Annual TESOL Convention and Exposition. This was the first time they had met in person, yet they were not strangers, having communicated for nearly a year with representatives from the three host universities: California State University-Los Angeles, Southeast Missouri State University, and Eastern Michigan University. Those present were selected from a record 122 submitted proposals. Presentations at the GSF showcase graduate students' research interests and reflect the perspectives of tomorrow's TESOL professionals.

The day got off to an excellent start with opening addresses by TESOL President Amy Schlessman and Drs. Jun Liu, Eric Dwyer, and Michele Sabino. Following the opening session, participants attended paper, demonstration, and poster sessions by graduate students before reconvening for the afternoon plenary sessions, which were the top four presentations selected from all 122 submitted. These top four presenters were EunYoung Won of Michigan State University on Nonnative EFL Teachers' Use of English, Yen-Hui Lu of the University of Maryland, College Park, on Collaborative Action Research in ESOL Classrooms, Stacey O'Neil of Hunter College on Adult L2 Literacy Development Through Phonemic Awareness, and Christine V. P. Pasztor of Eastern Michigan University on How Native Speakers Determine Nonnative Competency. The top four presenters were also featured in a Spotlight Session on Wednesday morning as part of the TESOL convention program.

This year's GSF was successful in bringing together the voices of MATESOL students for a day of sharing and collaboration, concluding with the student dine-around, an informal networking event to encourage conversation and fun. Next year's GSF will be held on March 29, 2004, in San Antonio, Texas, prior to the 39th Annual TESOL Convention and Exposition.


Creating an ESOL Field Experience in Teacher Education Programs

By Barbara Hruska, email bhruska@ut.edu, University of Tampa, FL, USA.

Sitting in my undergraduate TESOL I course for elementary majors, they looked and acted like the students they were--juniors in their first semester of the University of Tampa's teacher education program. An hour later, these same 18 students were transformed before my eyes into teachers on the first day of their ESOL (English for speakers of other languages) field experience. This breathtaking metamorphosis continued throughout the semester as they began to talk like teachers, walk like teachers, and, as I could see from our conversations and written evaluations, think, reflect, plan, and ponder like teachers as they were confronted with real children in real teaching situations.

This field experience is an early literacy program for kindergarten and first grade ESOL students. Under my direct onsite supervision, University of Tampa elementary teacher candidates enrolled in this practicum work with two or three ESOL students twice a week for 90 minutes over the course of our 14-week semester.

Program Rationale

Practicum I: TESOL was created in response to the ESOL Endorsement requirements for teachers in Florida (Florida Department of Education, 1990, 2001). All preservice elementary majors must complete 15 credit hours of ESOL training as part of their initial teacher certification program to prepare them for working with ESOL students in their mainstream classrooms. [1] Field experience working with ESOL students is part of this training.

This practicum occurs in the first semester of our teacher preparation program because it is in this semester that students are enrolled in our TESOL I and Emerging Literacy courses. These three courses are corequisites and build a foundation for future ESOL-infused method courses and mastery of the 25 Florida ESOL Standards (Florida Department of Education, 2001). Furthermore, we implemented this field experience in response to student requests for hands-on teaching experiences earlier in the professional program. In the past, it had been difficult for undergraduates to plan and adapt lessons for ESOL students, a requirement in all elementary methods courses, when many had never worked with or even encountered an ESOL student previously. Lesson plans reflected the innocent notion that extra time to complete assignments and access to what was assumed was an abundance of native language texts and translators would be all that was needed to reach their future, but still fictional, ESOL students. While attempting to plan for methods courses, many teacher candidates were tentative and uncertain about actually working with this unknown population. With the TESOL I and Practicum I: TESOL courses at the beginning of their teacher preparation program, preservice classroom teachers are sensitized to the needs of ESOL learners and effective ESOL teaching strategies early on. They have an experience upon which to base their ESOL adapted methods course lesson plans. Some elementary majors even take a special interest in working with ESOL students as a result of this practicum and decide to make it their future career focus.

Program Logistics

The first five classes of Practicum I: TESOL are held at the university and are devoted to training, with additional training occurring during the semester. During this initial training period, the interns-to-be are introduced to early literacy concepts through simulations in other languages. Strategies for working with second language learners to increase comprehensible input and support oral language and literacy development are emphasized. The undergraduates learn early phonemic awareness activities, simple guided reading techniques, how to engage in interactive writing, and how to teach songs and chants that promote vocabulary development through visuals and movement. Interest in this training is typically high because of the immediate application of the concepts and skills being presented. At the same time, these elementary majors are receiving instruction in the Emerging Literacy course that supports and extends what is being taught during the training. After these first two to three weeks, we visit the school, run through our routine, and complete a neighborhood tour of the area surrounding the school.

On the basis of bilingual enrollment forms that are distributed by classroom teachers to eligible ESOL students, each undergraduate is assigned to work with two or three students throughout the semester. After an initial one or two sessions of getting to know each other while playing games and reading stories, the interns conduct individual language and literacy assessments in order to plan lessons that support their ESOL students' development. They also present literacy activities they develop in their Emerging Literacy course such as reading aloud in costume and storytelling with props and puppets. In the future, art, music, and physical education methods course assignments will also be applied in the practicum.

On a typical program day, we arrive at the elementary school about 30 minutes prior to dismissal. We have a short meeting, set up materials, and meet the 35 children who are enrolled in the program at their classroom doors. Children are escorted to the library, where we conduct the program. They sing a song, have a snack, listen to a story, and then spend the remainder of the time in a tutorial with their University of Tampa interns. Because the ratio is one intern to two or sometimes three elementary students, there is ample opportunity for ESOL students to talk, read, and write in English with significant attention and support.

As most of the session is spent in the tutorials, not a lot of group management is required. The undergraduates develop the management skills required for working with two to three students or even groups of up to 10 students, but are rarely required to manage larger groups of children. Because the children receive so much teacher attention, they are typically absorbed in their tasks throughout the session, which facilitates management overall. These interns will have opportunities to develop whole-class management skills later in the teacher education program during subsequent internships in classrooms. This beginning experience builds their confidence and allows them to employ a variety of instructional techniques in a supportive environment.

The interns prepare a structured lesson plan for each tutorial based on state standards and their students' assessment results. The lesson plan is composed of four sections which includes reading aloud and literature response, working with letters and words, guided reading, and interactive writing. After each lesson is taught, the interns complete a written self-reflection on the effectiveness of their instruction. I am available onsite to respond to questions while they are tutoring or during our daily closing meeting and often respond in writing to questions they pose in their lesson plans.

Designing a Program

Although I have outlined the format for this particular program, there are an infinite number of variations in design and focus for such programs, including

  • Homework clubs to assist ESOL students at any grade with classroom assigned homework
  • Writing workshop
  • A math program focusing on problem solving
  • A music and movement or drama program emphasizing language development
  • An art and literature program emphasizing reading and reader response

Programs need not be after-school programs, but could be integrated into the school day, or offered in the summer. An ESOL field experience could be part of an ESL (English as a second language) degree program rather than an elementary certification program (as long as the requirements are adjusted accordingly) or could be added to an elementary program in lieu of observation hours.

The program design also depends on contextual features such as

  • Availability and needs of the local ESOL population
  • Interest of local schools
  • Transportation for the ESOL students to and from the program, if needed
  • A supportive school administrator
  • University faculty to supervise the program
  • Number of university interns available to run the program
  • Availability of an appropriate teaching space
  • Storage for teaching materials, if needed
  • A translator for permission slips, reminders, and notices to parents

Depending on the nature of the program, an initial source of funding may be required. The program at the University of Tampa was initiated with a $1,000 Teaching Innovation grant from the university the first year. This money was used to purchase individual whiteboards, markers, paper, pencils, and storage containers. School district grant monies earmarked specifically for use with ESOL students were used to purchase instructional materials. In addition to initial grant money, ongoing funding might be needed for

  • A snack for children, if needed
  • Consumable items such as paper, pencils, and whiteboard markers

In conclusion, designing an ESOL field experience can be tailored to fit the needs of specific teacher education programs and local schools. Regardless of logistics, there are benefits all around. Student interns have a nonthreatening early field experience with ESOL students, which builds a strong foundation for future coursework and fieldwork. Local schools receive instructional support at no cost and with no commitment of cooperating teachers. Moreover, the ESOL students receive individualized English language and literacy support from enthusiastic interns who are developing effective ESOL strategies and instructional practices.

References

Florida Department of Education. (1990). The Florida Consent Decree. Retrieved October 2, 2004, from Florida Department of Education,http://www.firn.edu/doe/omsle/cdpage2.htm

Florida Department of Education. (2001). Preparing Florida's teachers to work with limited English proficient students. Tallahassee, FL: Author.

Endnotes

1. Secondary English majors in Florida teacher education programs must meet these same requirements. Practicing elementary and secondary English teachers have the option of 15 credit hours or 300 professional development hours in ESOL, which meet the 25 ESOL performance standards. All other pre- and in-service teachers must have a minimum of three credit hours or 60 professional development hours in ESOL.

Barbara Hruska has 23 years of teaching experience at the elementary, secondary, and adult levels as a classroom and ESL teacher. She is currently an assistant professor of ESOL education at the University of Tampa where she trains elementary and secondary preservice teachers. Her research interests are bilingual education, gender, and social relationships.


English for the Nonnative English Speaking ESL Teacher Course

D. Rachael Fecyk-Lamb, email: mailto:fecyklam@Ms.UManitoba.CA, University of Manitoba, Canada.

Introduction

As teacher educators, we try to model what we believe to be effective teaching practice when we work with teacher candidates. We understand (and model) the importance of assessing and addressing student needs in order to help students reach their personal academic, career, and language goals.

In this article, I present a course, English for the Nonnative English Speaking ESL Teacher, that aims to meet some of the particular needs of nonnative English speaking (NNES) teacher candidates. It is a course I developed and have taught as part of the TESL Canada accredited Certificate in Teaching English as a Second Language (CTESL), which is offered at the University of Manitoba, Canada.

NNES English as a second language (ESL) teacher candidates benefit from a distinct course that addresses their language and other academic needs. It is also important that issues concerning NNES ESL teachers be part of this particular course and other courses in any TESOL/teaching of English as a second language (TESL) education program. In this way, we start to address the needs of NNES teacher candidates. We must, however, always keep in mind that NNES teacher candidates are a diverse, not a homogeneous, group. English may be an additional language for all these students, but they come from varied cultural, educational, and economic backgrounds. As with all our students, their individual needs also need to be addressed within their teacher preparation program.

English for the NNES ESL Teacher Course Description

The University of Manitoba provides the following course description in its calendar:

English for the Nonnative English Speaking ESL Teacher: English language development for nonnative speaking teachers of ESL. Focus on teacher, classroom and professional English. Native speakers should not take this course.

With this description and some initial research, including informal discussions with NNES teacher candidates, I developed the following course objectives before teaching the first section of the English for the Nonnative English Speaking ESL Teacher course in 2002.

A student who successfully completes this course will

  • have increased confidence in his/her personal English language skills, including accuracy and fluency in oral and written forms
  • be able to use a greater range of vocabulary related to the ESL teaching profession and everyday English
  • be able to write and edit passages using the writing process
  • be able to orally use effective questioning techniques when teaching
  • be able to more comfortably discuss issues in ESL teaching with colleagues
  • be able to articulate a personal philosophy for second language teaching

Next, I found themes that would allow me to work with the students toward the course objectives. These themes are as follows:

  • Learning styles and strategies
  • Communication and clear explanations
  • Course books
  • Finding teaching jobs
  • Successful questioning

Another important part of the initial planning was to develop classroom activities and assignments that could help me assess the students' progress in attaining the course objectives. These are briefly described in the latter part of this article.

Class Routines

This three-credit-hour course meets for three hours, once a week for 13 weeks. Each day the class meets, we follow this sequence of activities: debriefing and vocabulary work; theme work; and writing and grammar and pronunciation.

Debriefing and Vocabulary Work

For the first part of every class my students and I sit in a circle. It is important for me, as the leader in the room, to not be standing or seated behind a desk, as this sets me apart from the students. I want to be seen as being at their level, to make the situation as open and comfortable as possible. I try to create an easygoing atmosphere. I have found the students welcome this after their other more formal courses. They know that we can spend as much time as we like in this initial phase of the lesson without the pressure of getting through course material.

During this time, I ask the group how the week has been. I ask if anything really interesting or uncomfortable happened in their other CTESL courses. We talk through anything that comes up. I also ask if they were unsure about any teaching jargon or idioms that they noticed in class, in their readings, or in their daily lives. As a group, we discuss and clarify these. Sometimes I offer jargon or idioms I think will be helpful in their other courses or daily lives. Other times, I reteach ideas from readings or other lectures. This course, and particularly this part of the course, is the students' breathing time. They all face similar language, academic, and social challenges in the CTESL program. This is their opportunity to relax and work through some of them.

Theme Work

After the debriefing, we move on to theme work. Within this section of the course, I encourage cross-context and cross-cultural comparisons. We often discuss how things work in different situations: in different countries, with different age groups, and so on. Some of the specific issues we address are discussed later in this article.

Grammar, Writing, and Pronunciation

I have found that the first two parts of each class are the most important parts of the course. Grammar and pronunciation become, some days, optional. The debriefing and themes take precedence. If the students are focused and enjoying the theme work, then we do not do language structure work that day.

Also, depending on the group, we may not do any pronunciation in the entire course; sometimes students may want to work more on grammar and writing.

The perspective is that this is an advanced English for specific purposes (ESP) course, and although the objectives and themes stay the same from term to term, the language needs of a particular group are assessed each term and, therefore, the work in this area varies from term to term.

The whole course moves at the pace of the students. It is not a problem to omit the final theme or to not get through all the planned language work. Also, as I am aware of what the students are doing in their other courses, I may decrease the homework for this course if I see they are struggling with the workload. This course is flexible, not rigid. It is truly an example of teaching the people and not the content: people before purpose.

Important Discussions and Issues in the Course

As mentioned above, within the debriefing and theme work, I encourage discussions with a variety of cross-context comparisons. Following are three key issues that we explore every term.

1. The term NNES and identity

This issue is usually discussed in debriefing sessions as the students express how they feel about the program in general.

When I first started working with NNES teacher candidates, I thought they would not like the NNES label and would not like having their own special course. I felt they would think of it as segregation, a pull-out system. I also thought they may be insulted and want to take a different elective course in the CTESL program. I was surprised during the first weeks of the first course I taught to hear my NNES students referring to the course as NNS only. They would discuss the course with classmates, including native English speakers, in other classes and happily call it this shortened name. Meanwhile, I had shortened the name to "English for the teacher" (like the Spratt, 1994, book), thinking this was a nicer term. My students taught me to have pride in the course and the way it was working. We all accepted that the NNES students are different from other CTESL candidates. Everyone has specific learning needs, and this course is suited to some that NNES students have. It does not devalue in any way what other courses in the program offer.

In our class, we discuss the idea of identity, which is membership in social groups and categories; it is fluid. The NNES teacher candidates are establishing a new identity as ESL teachers. They have three identities they are negotiating while in our program and beginning their teaching careers: ESL student, ESL teacher, and NNES ESL teacher, which is in the forefront. Their native English speaking (NES) counterparts are developing only one new aspect of their identities: ESL teacher.

The NNES students build a community among themselves for affirmation and support and to focus on their strengths while working through the program and their roles in it. This course helps with this goal. We also discuss other groups, such as the Nonnative English Speakers in TESOL (NNEST) caucus, that support NNES English teachers.

2. Why being NNES ESL teachers makes us better English teachers

This issue is explored in the Learning Styles and Strategies theme. Some of the strategies and styles may also resurface in the Course Books theme.

We talk about the fact that NNES teachers know how to learn English and know effective language learning strategies because they have successfully done it. Moreover, they understand what their students are experiencing as language learners, thus tapping into their students' affective needs. Because NNES teachers can empathize with their students on this personal level, the students will feel more comfortable and be more willing to take risks with the language.

If NNES English teachers work with students who speak their first language, they know the language priorities for their students. They are aware of the areas that are most difficult and important to focus on. In addition, if they are teaching in their home countries, NNES teachers intimately understand their students' backgrounds and contexts for learning English, which will help them make teaching methodology decisions.

Above all, NNES teachers are positive language learning models, while NES teachers may only be good language models.

3. Discrimination within the profession

Discrimination is another important issue to openly discuss. Many NNES teacher candidates worry about their accents and that they may not get hired because they don't have "native" English accents. The following points are explored in the Finding Teaching Jobs theme.

There can be hiring and on-the-job discrimination in Canada and in the teacher candidates' home countries on the basis of accent, so TESL professionals may need to educate others, including employers, about this. We must focus on the idea of intelligibility as being the goal of communication. Everyone has an accent, and ours are not problems so long as we speak comprehensibly.

NNES teachers can also promote themselves by discussing that they are positive products of learning English from NNES English teachers (if they had NNES teachers). These new teachers have a high English proficiency level and internationally recognized teaching qualifications which started with a strong teacher who, like themselves, was not a native English speaker.

Of course, the ideas about why NNES teachers make better ESL teachers (issue no. 2 above) should also be mentioned when educating others about NNES teachers of English.

Another important aspect of our discussions is human rights and employment discrimination in Canada; students learn how to take steps to protect themselves if needed. The ideas of native English speaking and White privilege are also key in these discussions.

Facilitating Dialogue on NNES Issues in All CTESL Courses

The issues in the previous section of this article need to be part of all courses in any TESOL/TESL education program. I use the following techniques to bring NNES issues to the foreground in the other CTESL courses I teach.

In methodology discussions (including case studies and projects), different contexts are explicitly discussed; what works in this city may not be appropriate in other cultural, economic, and/or educational settings.

Dialogue journals have been a success in my Principles and Procedures of Second Language Instruction course. Students write to me on any topic or issue from any of their courses, and I respond to them in writing. I often ask each student questions and challenge students to consider NNES issues.

I encourage NNES and NES student study groups. Many NNES students have strong grammar knowledge and a good sense of lesson activities and progression, whereas the NES students can sometimes help the NNES students with lecture notes, jargon, and everyday language. Because of their diverse backgrounds and experiences, NNES and NES students have a lot to offer each other.

It is important to carefully consider student groupings for discussions, presentations, and practicum teaching (which is sometimes done in pairs in our program [team teaching]). For example, the practicum works well in mixed NES and NNES pairs; often the NNES students have many ideas and technical knowledge and the NES students have Canadian vocabulary and cultural knowledge to contribute to the team. I use some homogeneous (same first language) groups for methodology, so students can present ideas to the class coming from a common background. Also, some discussions work best if students are grouped in their future teaching situations.

Readings and discussions about accent discrimination and White privilege are another way to raise awareness in other CTESL courses.

Choosing Materials and Activities for the NNES ESL Teacher Course

I have not found an appropriate textbook for this course. I use materials related to the course themes and issues, which are usually authentic readings from professional journals. I also use advanced ESL writing, grammar, and pronunciation resources.

The course primarily includes cooperative learning with discussions of differences and similarities in teaching in diverse contexts. We also do grammar and writing activities and presentations in the class.

Evaluating Students

Students are evaluated in the English for the Nonnative English Speaking ESL Teacher course by means of three types of activities.

Presentations help students develop more confidence with their oral skills. Presentations are peer- and self-evaluated on a scale.

Students complete four writing assignments including a statement of personal teaching philosophies and a cover letter in which they promote themselves as an English teacher. Students may hand in drafts of writing for corrections and conferencing before handing in a final draft for marks. In groups, the students create rubrics for the marking of these assignments.

There are also three vocabulary, grammar, and writing quizzes. The content of these quizzes changes each term. The vocabulary comes from the discussions in the debriefing sessions and in the theme work. The grammar and writing is from the language work studied.

Conclusion

I strongly believe that all TESOL/TESL education programs should develop a course similar to the English for the Nonnative English Speaking ESL Teacher course at the University of Manitoba. Also, it is essential that NNES teacher issues be integrated in the entire teacher education program. I look forward to reading about courses similar to the one I have developed and welcome feedback about the ideas I have written here.

References

Spratt, M. (1994). English for the teacher: A language development course. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Rachael instructs full time in the University of Manitoba's CTESL program and also teaches adult ESL classes. Her work in teacher education began in 1996, in Pakistan. She has developed a variety of curricula for adult ESL, child EFL, and TESL teacher education courses and programs. She has experience teaching all ages and proficiency levels of English. Rachael's professional and research interests include curriculum development, nonnative speaking teaching professionals, and vocabulary acquisition and needs assessment.

 


Mentoring Junior Teachers in a High School

Liping Wang, wlp5582@sohu.com, High School of Tongchuan Mineral Bureau, China.

Having been a teacher of English as a foreign language (EFL) for 30 years and the director of the English Language Teaching Program for 20 years, I experienced and witnessed some common difficulties of junior teachers. The importance of training junior teachers cannot be overemphasized.

Importance of Training Junior Teachers

There has been a great demand for teachers of EFL in China since the early 1980s. Many college graduates chose the career of teaching EFL without any practical training. Generally speaking, they have up-to-date knowledge and love teaching. They are good at using modern technology such as the computer and the Web. Nevertheless, they lack experience in teaching and managing the classroom. With help from a mentor who has rich experience in teaching, these junior teachers can fit themselves into the new career more efficiently.

Some Difficulties Junior Teachers Face and Steps Taken in Our Program

Junior teachers are recruited to our school from mainly two sources: experienced teachers from middle schools and college graduates. The difficulties these teachers encounter are different, and we take steps accordingly to meet their needs. Experienced teachers from junior schools have some experience of teaching and some skills of managing the classroom but need to update their knowledge. Teaching in a junior school is one thing, and teaching in a senior school is another. For these teachers, I encourage them to learn on their own and take courses in a correspondence university. Recent graduates from colleges or universities do not have any idea about how to teach because most of them are from the English department instead of the Education department. They have great difficulty in designing the syllabus, choosing teaching materials, managing the classroom, and teaching effectively. For these junior teachers, I assign a mentor to each of them and ask mentors to guide them step by step. In addition, junior teachers are also encouraged to learn from all experienced teachers.

As the director of the program, I check junior teachers' syllabi and observe their classes. Immediately following each observation, I give them some advice. I also make arrangements for them to observe classes taught by experienced teachers. Junior teachers are also encouraged to practice their teaching with all teachers in the program.

With the help of experienced teachers and their own hard work, junior teachers in our program have improved their teaching and are welcomed and respected by our students and their parents.

More Steps to Be Taken

In order to make junior teachers improve their professional competence, experienced teachers, especially coordinators of particular courses, should take every step in the preparation of a complete and detailed training plan for junior teachers with the support of the school.

Clarify the Aim of Training

For the teachers who just graduated from colleges or universities, we plan to take three steps. The first step is to help them make the transition from students to teachers. We should help them learn how to make their knowledge accessible to students. The second step is to help them meet the needs of the students. Students in our school vary in their English language proficiency, family background, and prior learning experience. We should help junior teachers have close contact with the students and learn about each student's learning style and difficulties in learning English. The third step is to help them become experienced teachers. In order to make junior teachers into experienced teachers as soon as possible, experienced teachers should insist on mentoring them. Observations of classroom teaching should be included in the agenda. These observations help to connect the rich experience of experienced teachers with the updated knowledge of junior teachers. All teachers learn from each other and make progress at the same time.

Provide Workshops and Educational Opportunities

In order to encourage junior teachers to go on studying and making progress, the school should organize some workshops on career development. For example, informal discussions can be held for experienced teachers to share their experience in preparing for lessons. Junior teachers may also use this opportunity to demonstrate their talents and wisdom by helping experienced teachers learn new technology. These kinds of activities can help junior teachers improve their self-concept and fit into the program as soon as possible. We can also give every junior teacher an opportunity to observe other junior teachers' classes. A discussion following the observation gives each junior teacher an opportunity to critique and self-critique the methodologies used in the class. Junior teachers should also be encouraged to take part in the competitions in the school, city, province, and nation. Every year, the school should carry on a set of junior teachers' competition activities with respect to syllabus design, classroom teaching, classroom activities, and so on. Furthermore, the school should provide junior teachers with some opportunities for further study. We can build up connections between the school and universities, and junior teachers should be encouraged to pursue a higher degree in education.

Provide Them With Opportunities for Practice

Junior teachers should be given some opportunities to teach more advanced-level classes. We should trust them and be patient with their progress. Moving from teaching lower-level classes to teaching advanced-level classes increases their self-confidence and offers them more opportunities to practice. As is known, practice makes perfect.

Liping Wang is a teacher of English as a foreign language at the High School of Tongchuan Mineral Bureau in the Shaanxi province of the People's Republic of China. She has been teaching in the same school for 30 years and her research interest is teacher education. She is currently the director of the English Language Teaching Program at the school.


News: TEIS Sponsors Electronic Village Online Session

TEIS is sponsoring an Electronic Village Online session this winter. To learn more, please visithttp://www.geocities.com/ehansonsmi/evo2005/evo2005.html. Registration for this event will be open Monday, January 3- Sunday,  January 16, 2005.

The Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) Interest Section of TESOL association offers ISs and Caucuses the opportunity to participate in the Electronic Village Online (EVO), a professional development project and virtual extension of the TESOL 2005 Convention in San Antonio, Texas, USA. The intended audience for this project includes both TESOL 2005 participants and those who can participate only virtually.

About The EV Online Sessions

For six weeks, participants and ESOL experts can engage in collaborative, online discussion sessions or hands-on virtual workshops of professional and scholarly benefit. These sessions will bring together participants for a longer period of time than is permitted by the four-day convention and will allow a fuller development of ideas than is otherwise possible. The sessions are free and open to all interested parties. Session leaders (moderators), who must be TESOL members, will receive hands-on training in online discussion management and the use of Yahoo! Groups, and they may be asked to help train future session leaders.



Book Reviews Book Review: Integrating English Language Learners in the Science Classroom

Christina Emmert, email: c_emmert888@hotmail.com.

Hill, J., Little, C., & Sims, J. (2004). Integrating English language learners in the science classroom. Ontario: Trifolium Books, Inc.

Integrating English Language Learners in the Science Classroom is designed for science teachers who need to integrate intermediate and advanced English language learners into a classroom with native speakers. Based on grades 6-8 science curricula currently in use throughout the United States and Canada, the book discusses such topics as explaining vocabulary, using the Internet, and assessing students fairly while incorporating the science subject material. The text contains handouts for potential lesson plans, as well as activities with detailed instructions. The appendix includes helpful websites for students' use and a list of resources with brief reviews for the teacher's benefit. A short glossary of language learning terms is also available for quick reference. Although a teacher who plans to use this book will need to incorporate other resources into the classroom, this text gives a useful, general overview of teaching science and English concurrently.

The textbook, organized into five chapters, covers the basics of teaching science and English to English as a second language (ESL) students. The chapters are further divided into sections that focus on specific techniques. Each section provides examples of activities to be used in the discussion of such science topics as forces, ecosystems, and the Earth's crust, all featuring particular language points that the students should learn from the lesson. The first chapter discusses how to assist ESL students in understanding the subject matter. In the second chapter, the authors explain how to make concepts comprehensible to their students by using lessons that involve total physical response, Venn diagrams and flowcharts, and the students' first languages. The last point is an important and debatable one: The authors assert that teachers should allow beginning students to write in their native languages and then translate their writing into English, as this will help the students express information that may be difficult for them to write directly in English. Chapter three describes how to teach students to communicate in English, specifically mentioning vocabulary, question-asking, and writing assignments. The fourth chapter focuses on outside references and resources such as reading materials, field trips, and the Internet. Finally, the last chapter discusses assessment of students.

The textbook focuses on language development through communicative exercises that utilize discussion activities, writing prompts, magazine or newspaper articles, and additional resources. Ideas for cross-curricula projects incorporate creative writing, mathematics, art, and research into the science course. Some activities involve the use of the Internet and field trips, thereby extending the students' learning opportunities beyond the classroom. The textbook encourages the use of creative, hands-on activities to promote critical thinking and in-depth writing. Though the activities are appropriate for the authors' intended grade levels, the materials are probably better suited for high-beginning to high-intermediate English language learners than for intermediate and advanced learners. The activities could be easily modified for use with older and/or more advanced students.

Although not to be used exclusively in the science classroom, the textbook is a practical reference guide for teachers. Although the materials are based on American and Canadian science curricula, the textbook could be used worldwide; it is culturally adaptable and cites examples of possible differences in teaching and learning styles among cultures. The textbook lacks an index, but the layout is straightforward and the table of contents is detailed enough to find the key concepts. The list of handouts is another convenient tool.

The textbook lacks an answer key for the provided exercises, which may be disconcerting for many teachers. Otherwise, the book is an excellent guide, as it focuses on the four language skills with captivating activities and encourages students to learn and study outside of the classroom. I would strongly consider using it as a basic resource and recommend that other teachers do the same.

Christina Emmert is a sophomore studying international business at Wright State University in Dayton, Ohio. She has lived and traveled in the United States, Europe, Asia, and Africa. Currently, she is in Rome, Italy, finishing her remaining years of college. She recently completed a TEFL program and hopes to teach English in Italy and Eastern Europe while obtaining her master's degree.



About This Member Community Call for Contributions

The TEIS Newsletter encourages submission of articles and book reviews on topics of significance to teacher educators. We also solicit TEIS voices from all of our members.

Articles should be between 800 and 1500 words and may be program descriptions, course descriptions, best practices, teaching techniques, or articles on any topic of interest to ESOL teacher educators, especially those of sociopolitical interest or issues not commonly addressed in the literature.

Book reviews of between 300 and 500 words should provide the reviewer's analysis of books that are relevant to the practice and theory of teacher education.

TEIS voices are paragraphs of approximately 100 words that introduce a teacher educator's work. TEIS voices serve as a networking tool as well as an opportunity to shine a spotlight on a teacher, program, or country we might not otherwise read about.

Please send your contributions to Chuang Wang at cwang15@email.uncc.edu before January 30, 2005, for the next issue.


TEIS Leadership Team 2004-2005

Past Chair: Meg Gebhardt, gebhard@educ.umass.edu
Immediate Past Chair: Shelley Wong, wong.180@osu.edu
Chair: Mark Tanner, mark_tanner@byu.edu
Chair-Elect: Paula Golombek, pxg2@psu.edu
Future Chair-Elect: Steve Stoynoff, Stephen.stoynoff@mnsu.edu

IS Council Representatives

New: Rachel Grant, rag022@aol.com
Current: Valerie Jakar, valerie@vms.huji.ac.il
Last year: Steve Stoynoff, Stephen.stoynoff@mnsu.edu (NEED TO ELECT REPLACEMENT as Steve was elected incoming chair)
Past: Cheri Micheau, cmicheau@upper-merion.k12.pa.us

Newsletter Coeditor: Su Motha (past), sumotha@wam.umd.edu (NEED TO ELECT REPLACEMENT)
Newsletter Coeditor: Chuang Wang, cwang15@email.uncc.edu

Web Manager: Katya Nemtchinova, katya@spu.edu

Electronic Mailing List Manager: Barbara Wright, barbewire3@yahoo.com

Members as of December 2003: 732

TEIS has an e-list and Web page.


About the Teacher Education Interest Section Teacher Education Interest Section

TESOL's Teacher Education Interest Section provides a forum for ESOL teacher educators and other TESOL members to raise, discuss, and address issues relevant to the education, preparation, and continuing professional development of teachers who work with ESL/EFL learners around the world. It creates opportunities for ESOL teacher educators to learn, interact, collaborate, and share with one another.

Teacher Education Interest Section Community Leaders, 2004-2005

Chair: Mark W. Tanner, e-mail mark_tanner@byu.edu
Chair-Elect: Paula Golombek, e-mail pxg2@psu.edu
Editor: Chuang Wang, e-mail cwang15@email.uncc.edu

Discussion E-List: Visit http://www.tesol.org/getconnected/ to subscribe to TEIS-L, the discussion list for TEIS members, or visithttp://lists.tesol.org/read/?forum=teis-l if already a subscriber.

Web Site: http://www.spu.edu/depts/tesol/TEIS/