TSR Newsletter

TESOLers for Social Responsibility E-Newsletter, Volume 4, Issue 6

by User Not Found | 11/01/2011
In This Issue...

Message From the Caucus Chair
Letter From the Caucus Newsletter Editor
Report From TESOL 2004
The 2004 U.S. Presidential Election
Cooperative Learning and Peace Education
From the Web Sites
From the Journals
Online Conference
About This Member Community

Message From the Caucus Chair

By Tom Schroeder, TSR Chair for 2004-2005

TESOL 2004 has slipped into memory for those of us fortunate enough to have enjoyed the hospitality of Long Beach, California. The annual conference marks the change of leadership within our caucus. Thanks to Elise Klein for her year of service as the chair and for her ongoing commitment to the caucus and the cause of social justice. Thanks also to George Jacobs for his continuing service to the caucus as our newsletter editor. Irma-Kaarina Ghosn has been elected as the incoming chair for 2005-2006.

The program offerings in Long Beach were a rich affirmation of our unique role as agents for the cause of social justice. As TESOL professionals, we engage daily in negotiations across cultural and values divides. We are often the front line for initiating social change. Across the full range of our experiences we hold knowledge that the profession and the world sorely needs. My highest hope for the year ahead is that the caucus can provide support for each of you in your classroom and work environment.

As chair for the upcoming year, I hope to facilitate communication among us. Our corporate experience is a wealth that needs sharing. Therefore, I encourage each of you to please initiate, contribute, and share in the discussions on the TSR electronic discussion list. All voices are essential to getting us through the difficult year ahead.

In closing, I look forward to the year ahead as your chair. Caucuses are the very description of grassroots organization. It is our job to promote within the organization and the profession the voice of the membership. Voices for peace and social justice have never been needed more.

Yours in service,

Tom Schroeder

Letter From the Caucus Newsletter Editor

By George Jacobs, JF New Paradigm Education, george@vegetarian-society.org

Thanks to Elise Klein for serving as TSR chair during 2003, and a warm welcome to Tom Schroeder as TSR chair of 2004. Please give Tom as much input and support as possible. He has taken on a big job!

This issue features, thanks to Kip Cates, a compilation of some TSR-relevant sessions at TESOL 2004. As you can see, a lot is going on. Please consider using the TSR e-newsletter and the TSR list as additional ways to share the great work that you are doing.

Normally, newsletter articles should be short (900 words or less). I've suggested to authors who want their articles to be longer than 900 words that they post the longer version of their piece on a Web site (e.g., their school's Web site) and then include in the TSR newsletter article a hyperlink to that longer version or to appendix-type materials.

In this issue of the newsletter, Cates' report is followed by suggestions by Elise Klein on activities related to elections. This is a big election year, with voting taking place in many countries. The next article discusses the link between cooperative learning and peace education. The authors, brothers David and Roger Johnson and their sister Edyth Holubec, have long been leaders in cooperative learning and have long been applying cooperative learning to conflict resolution and other areas of peace education.

This issue of our newsletter includes information on a Web site, with the intriguing name "TEaGIRl," that looks at variations in English and their interaction with language and gender. Then, we offer an article from a philosophy journal. The article explores the impact that one person can have on an issue he or she cares about. Finally, this newsletter includes a notice for a different type of conference that you might want to check out.

Cooperatively yours,

George Jacobs

Report From TESOL 2004

By Kip Cates

Courtesy of Kip Cates, TSR's first chair and the editor of the must-read newsletter, Global Issues in Language Education, here is a list of TSR-related sessions at the recent TESOL convention. This list demonstrates once again the relevance of TSR in TESOL.

Presenters' e-mail addresses are, when possible, included to facilitate exchange of ideas. If you did a presentation at TESOL 2004 or are thinking of doing one at TESOL 2005, please consider publishing a brief (900 words or less) version of your presentation in the TSR e-newsletter.

TESOL 2004, the 38th annual convention of TESOL, was held March 31-April 3, 2004 in Long Beach, California, USA.

Preconference Workshops

Service Learning: Language and Communication

This preconference workshop session introduced the field of service learning and described how engaging students in meaningful community service can help develop language and intercultural communication skills in authentic contexts. Armeda Reitzel, Humboldt State Univ. (USA) (acr1@humboldt.edu)

Global Issues and Peace Education

This preconference workshop introduced participants to the field of peace education and demonstrated how to promote international understanding and social responsibility through lessons designed on topics such as land mines and the Nobel Peace Prize. Kip Cates, Tottori Univ. (Japan) (kcates@fed.tottori-u.ac.jp)

Official TSR Sessions

Fostering Student Awareness of Many Perspectives

This TSR colloquium featured an international panel of English language educators who discussed their work in promoting peace, human rights, social responsibility, and student participation in the local community. Panelists: Elise Klein (TSR 2003 Chair, USA), Natalie Hess (N. Arizona Univ.), Guofang Li (SUNY, USA), Enid Serrane (USA) (klint@aol.com)

Video: The Earth Day Special

This session introduced ESL teachers to The Earth Day Special, an award-winning environmental education video that promotes environmental awareness, social responsibility, and world citizenship. Panelists: Johanna Katchen (Taiwan), Kip Cates (Japan), Tom Schroeder (USA), Irma Ghosn (Lebanon), Yasuyo Fukunaga (Japan). Video info.: kcates@fed.tottori-u.ac.jp or http://www.amazon.com/

Promoting Social Justice in a Global Community

This all-caucus colloquium featured a panel of representatives from TESOL's six caucuses who discussed social justice concerns related to their areas of involvement. Elise Klein, Teachers Against Prejudice (USA) (klint@aol.com)

TSR Caucus Business Meeting

This session discussed TSR business and 2003 activities. Tom Schroeder, Utah State Univ. (USA) (faschroe@cc.usu.edu) was elected as the new TSR chair, with Elise Klein stepping down with grateful thanks for her year of spirited leadership.

Selected TSR-Relevant Sessions

Imperial Troopers of the Language of Empire

This panel discussed how the war on Iraq and the shift from anglophone hegemony to military imposition impacts the role of ESL teachers worldwide. Julian Edge, Univ. of Ashton (UK) (j.edge@aston.ac.uk)

ESL Students Connect With Community Service

This poster described a university ESL community-service project that enabled students to make new friends and widen their cultural experience. Gregg Brekke, Whitworth College (USA) (gbrekke@whitworth.edu)

Is Bilingual Ed Becoming a Casualty of War?

This session criticized the impact on ESL of English-only initiatives, electronic surveillance, racial profiling, and terrorist media hype. Marjorie Stamberg, Hunter College, NY (USA) (marjoriestamberg@yahoo.com)

Civic Engagement and TESOL Membership

This presentation explored how teachers can expand their civic engagement in the world as language professionals. Gail Weinstein (USA) (gailw@sfsu.edu)

Plays and Movies Teach Tolerance and Tense

This talk introduced drama-based exercises for six plays and movies that promote respect for diversity, fellowship, and language skills. Alexis Finger, Drexel Univ. (USA) (fingerag@drexel.edu)

Cultural Understanding in the Elementary School

This workshop showed how to incorporate language skills and cultural awareness into thematic English units at elementary school. Monica Schnee, Paramus Public Schools, NJ (USA) (mygaucho@aol.com)

Volunteerism, Service Learning, and Internships

This panel discussion explored ways to professionalize volunteer activities, service learning, and internships in TESOL. Lynn Henrichsen, Brigham Young Univ. (USA) (lynnhenrichsen@byu.edu)

Managing Conflict in English Language Programs

This talk described a conflict assessment study of a university EAP program and included ideas for improving conflict management. Priscilla Faucette, Univ. of Hawaii Manoa (USA) (faucette@hawaii.edu)

Dealing With Controversial Issues Found in Videos

This talk discussed how to teach controversial issues in videos so as to promote objective discussions and an understanding of American values. Susan Matson, ELS Language Centers (USA) (smatson@els.com)

Is English for Everybody All Gain and No Loss?

This panel discussed the positive and negative consequences (political, cultural, educational) of global English and ways to deal with these. Jane Hoelker, Zayed Univ. (UAE) (jane.averill@orst.edu)

Teaching in the Post-Iraq-War Climate

This talk discussed teaching materials for the post-Iraq climate of government surveillance, racial stereotyping, and insecurity. Marjorie Stamberg, Hunter College (USA) (marjoriestamberg@yahoo.com)

Language Policies Regarding SARS

This talk described how Singapore's language policies prevented understanding among dialect speakers during the SARS emergency. Kirsten Schaetzel, National Institute of Education (Singapore) (kschaetz@hotmail.com)

Multicultural Education and Intercultural Communication

This session compared multicultural education with intercultural communication and explained their applications in ESL. Nancy Tumposky, Montclair State Univ. NJ (USA) (tumposkyn@mail.montclair.edu)

Culture, Communication, and Love

This session showed how teaching love stories from students' cultures can promote both language learning and cross-cultural comparisons. Sherry MacKay, U.C. Riverside (USA) (smmackay@yahoo.com)

Debates for EFL Writers and World Citizens

This session explained the benefits of using debates to both develop language skills and create thoughtful, informed world citizens. Carol Clark, American Univ. in Cairo (Egypt) (cclark@aucegypt.edu)

Exploring Social Issues Through Short Stories

This session showed how short stories, with their variety of theme and style, can be used to explore social issues with ESL students. Sybil Marcus, Univ. of California (USA) (swm@unx.berkeley.edu)

Creating Critical Thinkers in the Language Class

This session discussed the importance of teaching critical-thinking skills and introduced teaching materials for integrating these into ESL. Carol Numrich, Columbia Univ. (USA) (can1@columbia.edu)

Teaching About Refugees, Rights, and Tolerance

This session explored the challenges faced by refugees through interactive classroom activities designed to promote human rights and tolerance. Joung-ah Ghedini, UNCHR, Washington, DC (USA) (http://www.unhcr.ch/)

Politics in the Classroom

This discussed the importance of integrating topics such as 9/11 into the classroom using examples from The New York Times and The Wall Street Journal. Mackenzie Bristow, Ohio Univ. (USA) (maxfury22@yahoo.com)

Expanding the Keypal Experience

This poster explained how to develop a successful EFL keypal project and extend it over the year with engaging activities. Matthew Reader, Tamagawa Elem. School (Japan) (matthew@tamagawa.ed.jp)

I*EARN Projects in Uzbekistan

This poster described work done by Uzbek students as part of the International Education and Research Network (I*EARN). Olga Abduvalieva, Tashkent Inst. of Oriental Studies (Uzbekistan) (anvarbio@tkt.uz)

Exploring Gender Inequity Through Project Work

This poster session described learner-centered experiential EFL activities designed to develop critical thinking on gender issues. Elizabeth Lokon, Miyazaki Int'l College (Japan) (elokon@miyazaki-mic.ac.jp)

Native or Nonnative English Speakers as E-Pals

This poster discussed whether English native speakers or nonnative speakers make more effective e-mail partners for EFL learners. Huifen Lin, Pennsylvania State Univ. (USA) (huifen5612@yahoo.com.tw)

Images and Stories of Refugees From Africa

This session featured slides of refugees from Ethiopia, Somalia, Rwanda, and the Congo with interviews on the refugees' adjustment to life in the United States. Pindie Stephen, Int'l Org. for Migration (Kenya) (pstephen@iom.int)

Raising Students' Cultural Awareness

This showed how to use the five aspects of culture to engage ESL students in research projects. Julie Sharpe (USA) (julieannseeksharpe@yahoo.com)

Intercultural Understanding in the Technology Age

This session reported on a project between a U.S. university and a teacher's college in China aimed at creating intercultural understanding. Emerson Case, California State Univ. (USA) (ecase@csub.edu)

Controversial Issues in Materials Writing

This panel discussion outlined the challenges of including controversial topics and non-mainstream populations in English textbooks. Martha Cummings, Univ. of Aizu (Japan) (rowbarge@yahoo.com)

Linguistics, Cultural Imperialism, and English

This talk, by TESOL's Applied Linguistics Interest Section, discussed issues of cultural imperialism linked to the spread of English. William Eggington, Brigham Young U. (USA) (william_eggington@byu.edu)

Discussing Religion in the ESL Classroom

This talk described how teachers avoid discussing religion because of fear of controversy and offered tips for productive discussions that promote mutual respect. Kevin Keating (USA) (kkeating@email.arizona.edu)

Connections Between Critical Pedagogy and ESL

This session introduced examples of critical pedagogy classroom activities for the global era that align ESL and social justice issues. Jaime Ramirez, Univ. of Massachusetts (USA) (jramirez@educ.umass.edu)

A Human Rights Project for EFL Learners

This session described a university EFL course in Egypt designed to develop language skills and positive attitudes for understanding human rights. Laila Rizk, Ain Shams University (Egypt) (laila@tedata.net.eg)

Cross-Cultural Counseling in Times of Conflict

This talk described an EFL teacher training course in the Middle East that was team-taught by both Israeli and Palestinian teacher trainers. Inas Deeb, Ministry of Education (Israel) (inasdeeb@hotmail.com)

Free Content-Based Lesson Plans

This talk introduced free Internet lesson plans from Web sites such as the United Nations and English Teaching Forum. Jody Nooyen (United Nations) (nooyen@un.org)

Sociopolitical Concerns in TESOL

This poster, by TESOL's Socio-Political Concerns Committee, had conference-goers post up their social concerns on an "issues" board. Joyce Kling, Language Center, Frederiksburg (Denmark) (jk.eng@cbs.dk)

Your ESL Class on Trial

This session outlined a content-based course designed to promote language, critical thinking, and cultural awareness through mock trials. Kimberley Schrader, Univ. of Hartford (USA) (schrader@hartford.edu)

Critical Pedagogy and Practice in East Asia

This panel discussion featured talks on language, culture, and critical pedagogy using examples from Japan, China, and Korea. Ryuko Kubota, Univ. of North Carolina (USA) (rkubota@email.unc.edu)

Moral Dilemmas of Socially Responsible Teaching

This TESOL energy break discussed the moral dilemmas involved in teaching about controversial personal, social, and global issues. H.D. Brown, San Francisco State Univ. (USA) (hdbrown@sfsu.edu)

The Role of Gender in the ESL Classroom

This talk explored how gender roles impact language instruction and offered tips to ensure an equal learning experience for both men and women. Susan Somach, Atlanta (USA) (somach@mindspring.com)

Diplomatically Speaking

This talk, by a UN teacher of "English for Diplomats," discussed how ESL students can be taught to speak more diplomatically in international settings. Jodi Nooyen, United Nations (nooyen@un.org)

Should We Remember or Forget?

This session discussed how to promote healing and deal sensitively in class with refugee students' experiences of war and trauma. Sharon McCreary, Denver (USA) (sharon_mccreary@dpsk12.org)

Creating Safe, Meaningful Learning Environments

This session offered examples of how ESL teachers can create cross-cultural dialogue, explore other's stories, and examine issues of war. Anne Marie Foerster Luu, Francis Scott Key Middle School (USA) (AnneMarie_FoersterLuu@fc.mcps.k12.md.us)

Internet Bias/Misinformation in Student Research

This session showed how to teach EFL students to identify biased and misrepresented information while doing Internet research projects. Todd Vidamour, Zayed Univ Dubai (UAE) (todd.vidamour@zu.ac.ae)

International Pen Pals

This session showed how to create a cultural exchange program by matching ESL students with U.S. school children as pen pals. Susan Gorga, State University of NY (USA) (smgorga@hotmail.com)

The 2004 U.S. Presidential Election

By Elise Klein

This excerpted article by 2003 TSR chair Elise Klein originally appeared in the Newsletter of Teachers Against Prejudice, Vol. 4, #1, Winter 2004. This article is copyrighted and reprinted with permission of Teachers Against Prejudice. For more information, please go to http://www.teachersagainstprejudice.org/.

If you are doing things related to elections in the United States or elsewhere, please share them with the readers of this newsletter or via the TSR list.

What I am going to do in this article is lay out the steps that can be taken in schools and classrooms ranging from elementary school through university and adult ed. As you will see, these suggestions are not limited to classrooms but also encompass dinner conversations and interactions with friends and family members.

Before beginning, let me challenge every member of TAP to "get out the vote." Not to get out the vote for a specific candidate, but rather to increase voter participation! There are many people who are registered but don't bother to vote. There are many other people, maybe you and/or friends and family, who have the right and privilege to vote but just never bothered to register.

Now, what we can do in our classrooms:

Elementary Schools + (1st - 4th grades)
  1. If your school has a school newspaper, excellent! If it doesn't have one, then start one!
  2. Have your students read one or more (preferably more) of the articles listed at the "Apple Learning Interchange" website: http://www.ali.apple.com. If they are very young, read the article to them, pausing frequently to answer any questions they may have. They can then write an article or draw a picture on what "being president" means to them. Publish their drawings and/or thoughts in the paper!
  3. Two recommended books: The Day Gogo Went to Vote by Elinor Batezat Sisulu is about a young girl who accompanies her 100-year-old grandmother when she votes in the first all-race elections in South Africa. Granddaddy's Gift by Margaret King Mitchell is set in the pre-civil rights era. Both these books will help young students learn about the electoral process and the importance of voting. After reading these books, let them interview their parents about what the electoral process means to them.
Middle School + (5th - 8th grades)
  1. Your school may or may not have school elections. If you do, you have it easy! On a sheet of paper, as a homework assignment, ask your students to write a list of what they look for when deciding whom to vote for in a school election. After you read through what they've written, give them back their papers and ask them to share with the class. Keep track, on the blackboard of which qualities they think were important and which were not. They will learn about the electoral process by going through this! It is also a wonderful opportunity to discuss the results and if they've learned anything which surprises them.
  2. Local Elections: Do students know who their local elected officials are? Local can mean in the community or in the state. What is the role/job duty of each of these officials? Senator? Congressional representative? State representative? Town council?
  3. If students could pick two issues of importance to them as concerned middle school students, what would the issues be that they would like to see their local officials address? The class write letters to their local officials outlining their issues of concern. Most likely they will hear back from the official. This will show them that government is indeed, accountable to its constituents.
High School/Adult Education/College
  1. Ask the students which issues are of major concern to them in the upcoming presidential elections and in daily life. Why is this important to them? Possible concerns include but are not limited to: taxes, education, health insurance, environment, homeland security, immigration, and the economy. Before doing any research, ask the students what they know about the stance on these issues from the point of view of the following parties: Republicans, Democrats and Greens (you may also want to include other political parties).
  2. Divide your class into two or more teams (Republicans, Democrats, and possibly Greens or other third parties). Each person on the team chooses one issue (list available at http://www.dnet.org/ or http://www.lwv.org/, and http://www.congress.org/). Each issue should have one person from each team/party representing that point of view. (Note: It is not important that the student researches the position of a party they already support. In fact, taking a "devil's advocate" position can sometimes teach more than simply reinforcing one's own point of view.)
  3. Arrange a time for a debate, either in-class or open to the entire school. It is a great activity for the entire school to attend. The rest of the student body will learn from the debate and also participate by asking the "party representatives" questions. Make sure you have arranged for a moderator. This can be either a student or a staff member--preferably a student with staff support. Make sure you have thoroughly explained the role of moderator and have prepped this student on elements such as time management. After the debate, have the students write up what they have learned from the debate. Has it opened their eyes in any way or altered their thinking?
  4. During the U.S. Presidential Election of 2000, many people questioned the fairness of the U.S. Electoral College and the winner-take-all system. Have students research other ways of voting used in other countries or locally in the U.S. These would include parliamentary systems, proportional representation, multi-seat districts, and instant runoff voting. A good source of information is the website of the Center for Voting and Democracy, http://www.fairvote.org.
  5. With your students, contact MTV's "Choose or Lose 2004" or "20 Million Loud". They have grants for voter registration projects:http://www.mtv.com/chooseorlose/headlines/news.jhtml?id=1484708
  6. Watch debates among the candidates and critique what they say and how the debate is organized. What can be learned about speaking skills?
Cooperative Learning and Peace Education

By David Johnson, Roger Johnson, and Edythe Holubec

Peace education is a key component of what TSR seeks to bring to classrooms, and cooperative learning is seen as a teaching methodology that is particularly compatible with peace education. This article originally appeared in "The Cooperative Link," the newsletter of The Cooperative Learning Institute (http://www.co-operation.org/) Vol. 19, #1, March 2004. Editors: David W. Johnson, Roger T. Johnson, Edythe Holubec.

The Nature of Peace and Peace Education

Given the current state of the world, reflecting on the nature of peace education seemed timely. In order to understand the nature of peace, it is necessary to understand the interrelationships among war, peace, cooperation, and conflict. War is a state of open and declared armed combat between states or nations, peace is freedom from war or strife (or a state of mutual concord between governments), cooperation is working together to achieve mutual goals, and conflict is the occurrence of incompatible activities (Deutsch, 1973; Johnson & Johnson, 1989). War and peace are two ends of a single continuum, so if there is war there is no peace and vice versa. Peace exists when there is cooperation among nations and war ends when cooperation is reestablished. Peace, however, is not an absence of conflict. Peace is a state in which conflicts occur frequently and are resolved constructively (war, in contrast, is a state in which conflicts are managed through the use of large scale violence).

One hope to establish and maintain peace is peace education. Peace education may be defined as teaching what peace is, how it may be established, how it may be maintained, and the factors influencing its continuation or demise. The ultimate goal of peace education is to give students the knowledge, procedural competencies, identity, and values required to maintain peace within themselves (intrapersonal peace), among individuals (interpersonal peace), among groups (intergroup peace), and among countries, societies, and cultures (international peace).

The broad nature of the definition of peace education makes it difficult for teachers to decide what to implement in their classrooms to help create a more peaceful world. There are at least four peace education programs needed in all classrooms: Constructive controversy, teaching students to be peacemakers, ethical judgment, and forgiveness.

Constructive Controversy

Establishing peace requires making decisions about difficult issues (often involving ethnic, cultural, or religious differences) that reflect the best reasoned judgment of everyone involved. Doing so is not easy. A procedure is needed that allows students to learn how to make effective decisions, such as constructive controversy.

In a controversy, participants make an initial judgment, present their conclusions to other group members, are challenged with opposing views, become uncertain about the correctness of their views, actively search for new information and understanding, incorporate others' perspectives and reasoning into their thinking, and reach a new set of conclusions.

This process results in significant increases in the quality of decision making and problem solving (including higher-levels of cognitive and moral reasoning, perspective taking, creativity, and attitude change about the issue), motivation to learn more about the issue, positive attitudes toward the controversy and decision making processes, the quality of relationships, and self-esteem. While the constructive controversy process can occur naturally, it may be consciously structured in decision making situations. This involves identifying the major alternative courses of action that may be taken to solve the problem, assigning two members to (a) develop the best case possible for the assigned alternative, (b) present it to the group and listen to the opposing positions, (c) engage in a discussion in which they attempt to refute the other positions and rebut attacks on their position, (d) reverse perspectives and present the other positions, and (e) drop all advocacy and seek a synthesis that takes both perspectives and positions into account. Then each year students are retrained in a more complex and sophisticated level of engaging in academic controversies from kindergarten through the 12th grade.

The educational use of controversy may be utilized in any subject matter. Engaging in the controversy process should pervade school life so that students develop considerable expertise in its use and incorporate the process into their identity. Any time students participate in the controversy procedure, they are getting a lesson in peace education and a lesson in democracy. By becoming skillful in the use of the academic controversy procedure individuals gain the competencies necessary to establish and maintain peace. The possibility of this taking place is strengthened by the foundation of theory and research on which the controversy procedure is based.

Ethical Reasoning

Peace depends on ethical judgment and ethical behavior. Ethical judgment involves reasoning about means and ends in light of principles (ethical codes) and context. Ethical judgment includes both moral reasoning and the cognitive skills involved in controlling, balancing, and guiding reasoning. Ethical judgment may be taught through the discussion of moral conflicts and dilemmas, particularly with peers who have different perspectives. Such discussions may emphasize optimistic thinking. Acting ethically includes a sensitivity to what is and is not ethical, reasoning about issues in the context of ethical principles, motivation to act in ethical ways, and the ability to actually engage in ethical actions. The more individuals strive to become ethical people, the more likely peace will exist.

Forgiveness

Establishing peace almost always involves forgiveness. In many conflicts, one of more disputant may believe that he or she has been unfairly wronged. Anger, righteous indignation, and a desire to hurt the offending disputant often result. In order for a constructive resolution of the conflict to be found, disputants have to forgive each other. Forgiveness involves willfully abandoning the negative thoughts, feelings, and behaviors directed at the offender and instead developing positive thoughts, feelings, and behaviors toward the offender. Forgiveness does not necessarily involve condoning (i.e., ignoring or subtly approving) an offense or reconciling with the offender, and it does not preclude constructive expressions of anger or reasonable redress of injustice. Students may be trained to be forgiving by developing four sets of competencies: Awareness (admitting that the offense took place and experiencing its negative consequences), making the decision to forgive rather than to focus on their negative responses, doing the internal work needed to forgive (such as reframing the offense and the offender so that forgiveness is possible), and experiencing the benefits of forgiveness (Enright, Gassin, & Knutson, 2003). Even in the most intractable, violent conflicts that continue for hundreds of years, individuals have forgiven each other and freed themselves from the anger, anxiety, and depression resulting from their exposure to violence.

Summary

One hope for peace is teaching all students in our schools the knowledge, procedural competencies, identity, and values required to maintain peace within themselves (intrapersonal peace), among individuals (interpersonal peace), among groups (intergroup peace), and among countries, societies, and cultures (international peace). Those competencies include how to engage in constructive controversies, negotiate mutually beneficial resolutions to conflicts, apply a high level of ethical judgment in resolving conflicts, and forgiving opposing disputants for what they have done in the past.

References

Deutsch, M. (1973). The resolution of conflict. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Enright, R., Gassin, E., & Knutson, J. (2003). Waging peace through forgiveness education in Belfast, Northern Ireland: A review and proposal for mental health improvement of children. Journal of Research in Education, 13(1), 51-61.

Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, R. (1989). Cooperation and competition: Theory and research. Edina, MN: Interaction Book Company.

Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, R. (Eds.). (2003). Frontiers in research: Peace education. Journal of Research in Education, 13(1), 39-91.

Narvaez, D., Herbst, R., Hagele, S., & Bomberg, A. (2003). Nurturing peaceful character. Journal of Research in Education, 13(1), 41-50.

From the Web Sites

The Transcultural Englishes and the Gender-Inclusive Reform of Language (TEaGIRL) research project investigates the globalization of English, transcultural Englishes, and social language reforms. It has a special focus on representation of gender, including an online survey related to sexism in English. Find out more at http://www.teagirl.arts.uwa.edu.au/.

From the Journals

If you like to use a lot of impressive words to explain why you do what you do for social justice, this article provides the vocabulary you need. It's talking about vegetarianism, but it applies to many other areas as well.

Methany, G. (2002). Expected utility, contributory causation, and vegetarianism. Journal of Applied Philosophy, 19(3), 293-297. Available athttp://www.veganoutreach.org/spam/thresholds/.

Abstract

Several authors have argued that act-utilitarianism cannot provide an adequate critique of buying meat because a single meat purchase will not actually cause more farm animals to be raised or slaughtered. Thus, regardless of whether or not the production of meat is inhumane to animals, someone who buys meat is doing nothing wrong. This argument fails to show that meat purchases are morally permissible, however, because it assumes that act-utilitarians would use actual utility in their decision to buy or not to buy meat. I show that act-utilitarians cannot use actual utility as a decision procedure and must instead use expected utility to prescribe or proscribe actions. I then demonstrate how expected utility can be applied to cases of contributory causation, where many people seem morally responsible for causing something to happen. Buying meat is one case of contributory causation where the probability of any single individual's affecting meat production is slight, but the expected disutility of affecting that production is substantial. Thus, in its expected utility form, act-utilitarianism defeats the 'causal inefficacy' defence of buying meat.

Online Conference

The face-to-face interaction at the annual TESOL convention is great, but here is a new kind of conference that cuts down on the fossil fuel use.

First International Online Conference on Second and Foreign Language Teaching and Research, September 25-26, 2004

The aim of this conference is to provide a venue for educators, established scholars, and graduate students to present work on a wide variety of pedagogical, theoretical, and empirical issues as related to the multidisciplinary field of second and foreign language teaching and research. During these two days, participants will share information and capitalize on their knowledge, experiences, and contributions. This conference will also give participants an opportunity to make global connections with people in their field.

For more information, visit
http://www.readingmatrix.com/onlineconference/index.html.

About This Member Community TESOLers for Social Responsibility (TSR) Caucus

The TESOLers for Social Responsibility (TSR) caucus comprises TESOL members who are actively engaged in integrating language teaching with social responsibility, world citizenship and an awareness of global issues such as peace, human rights and the environment. The caucus aims to promote social responsibility within the TESOL profession and to advance social equity, respect for differences, and multicultural understanding through education.

Community Leaders, 2004-2005

Chair: Thomas Schroeder, tsr@tesol.org
Chair-elect: Irma Ghosn
Editor: George Jacobs

Web site: http://www2.tesol.org/communities/tsr/

Discussion e-list: Visit http://www.tesol.org/getconnected to join TSR-L, or http://lists.tesol.org/read/?forum=tsr-l if already subscribed.