What are some resources available for ICIS members?

An Introductory Bibliography of Resources

Intercultural Communication-Interest Section (IC-IS)

Intercultural Communication (IC)

Barna, L. 1994. Stumbling blocks in intercultural communication. In L. Samovar & R. Porter. (Eds.), Intercultural communication: A reader, 8th edition. (Wadsworth). An accessible brief introduction to some of the main obstacles impeding IC, well illustrated with anecdotes. (Don Snow)

Bennett, M. (1993). Towards ethnorelativism: A developmental model of intercultural sensitivity. In Paige, M. (Ed.), Education for the intercultural experience (2nd ed.). Yarmouth, ME: Intercultural Press. Proposes a theoretical model of levels through which individuals develop as they increase in intercultural sensitivity. Good stimulus to thought about goals and methods in IC training. (Don Snow)

Gundykunst, W. (1998). Bridging differences: Effective intergroup communication (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Theoretical introduction to IC; academic but not quite as technical as Gundykunst and Young 1997. (Don Snow).

Gundykunst, W. & Young, Y. K. (1997). Communicating with strangers: An approach to intercultural communication (3rd ed.). Boston: McGraw Hill. Comprehensive theoretical introduction to IC. Rather technical. Extensive reference list. (Don Snow)

Lebedko, M. (2002) Culture Bumps: Overcoming Misunderstandings in Cross-Cultural Communication, 2nd edition. Vladivostok: Far Eastern State University Press. The book addresses fundamentals of culture (values, stereotypes, etc.), problems in intercultural interaction (culture contacts, conflicts, clashes, bumps, etc.), and ways of overcoming misunderstandings. The book also deals with nonverbal communication and emerging misunderstandings in cross-cultural situations. Comparison of Russian and American cultures in a table format concludes the book. (Victoria Tuzlukova)

Lustig, M. & Koester, J. (1998). Intercultural competence: Interpersonal communication across cultures (3rd ed.). New York: Longman. Accessible general introduction to IC, with particular focus on cultural diversity in the US. Easy to use as reference for common IC terms. Includes short literary excerpts to illustrate concepts. (Don Snow)

Martin, J. & T. Nakayama. (2000).  Intercultural communication in contexts. 2nd ed.  Belmont, CA: Mayfield.  Of the 4-5 most commonly use intro IC college texts, this one addresses systemic, critical pedagogy issues the best. Chapters on history, identity, transitions, power, non-verbal communication and privileged languages are particularly relevant and summarize research from anthropology, sociology and cross cultural psychology. (Piper McNulty)

Paige, M. (Ed.) 1993. Education for the intercultural experience, 2nd ed. (Intercultural Press) Collection of articles on IC training theory. For readers who already have a basic grasp of IC issues and are looking for deeper understanding. (Don Snow)

Proshina, Z. (2001). The English Language and Culture of Eastern Asia. Vladivostok: Far Eastern University Publishers. The book discusses language and culture contacts in the Far East, including Russia, China, Japan, and Korea, where the English language functions as a lingua franca. Nativized English has specific features in East Asia that should be taken into account by Russian interpreters and translators. (Victoria Tuzlukova)

Samovar, L. & Porter, R. (2001). Communication between cultures (4th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth. Good general introduction to IC theory; more academic than Lustig & Koester but also has more depth. (Don Snow)

Samovar, L. & Porter, R. (Eds.) 1997. Intercultural communication: A reader (8th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth. Collection of articles addressing many different aspects of intercultural (and co-culture) communication. Useful as reference.  (Don Snow)

Storti, C. (1999). Figuring foreigners out. Yarmouth, ME: Intercultural Press. A light readable introduction to the basic concepts and terminology of cultural difference. Workbook format. (Don Snow)

Ter-Minasova, Svetlana G. (2000) Language and intercultural communication. Moscow: Slovo. The book examines the linguistic aspect of Cultural Studies, interrelations between languages and cultures, problems of human interaction and intercultural communication. (Victoria Tuzlukova)

Teaching Intercultural Competence Skills

Brislin, R.  (1994). The Culture-General Assimilator. In S. Fowler, (Ed.) Intercultural sourcebook, Vol. 1 (pp. 169-177).  Yarmouth, ME:  Intercultural Press. Good guidelines for using cultural assimilators, and 18 themes of same. (Piper McNulty)

Crannell, E.S. (2001). Practicing intercultural communication. Dubuque, Iowa: Kendall/Hunt Publishing Co. 92 critical incidents based on true stories by community college students in "Silicon Valley", California. Many authors are "generation 1.5"  immigrants,  first generation American born, or are describing interactions with immigrants. Could easily be adapted for ESL classroom, and provides much useful information for teachers. (Piper McNulty)

Cushner, K. & Brislin, R. (1996). Intercultural interactions: A practical guide, 2nd ed.  Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Great source of cultural assimilators (100 ) about many cultures, w/ thorough analysis of each. Adaptable for ESL audiences and good resource for teachers. (Piper McNulty)

Fowler, S. M. & Mumford, M. G.  (1995).  Intercultural sourcebook: Cross-cultural training methods (Vol. 1).  Yarmouth, ME: Intercultural Press. A general book on the subject both for educators and trainers who wish to learn not only how to use role plays, contrast-culture training, simulation games, critical incidents, the cultural assimilator, and case studies but also the conceptualization for each. (Don Snow)

Hayes, R. (1994). Intercultural training: The effectiveness connection. In S. Fowler, (Ed.) Intercultural sourcebook, Vol. 1. Yarmouth, ME: Intercultural Press. Good source of documentation that IC training is worth doing. Useful when seeking approval for new course outlines or programs. (Piper McNulty)

Morgan, C. (2001). The international partnership project. In M. Byram, A. Nichols and D. Stevens, (Eds.), Developing intercultural competence in practice (pp. 11-28). Tonawanda, NY: Multilingual Matters. Describes an innovative approach to sharing across cultures, with a focus on student initiative and use of multiple intelligences). (Piper McNulty)

Paige, M. (Ed.) (1993). Education for the intercultural experience (2nd ed.). Yarmouth, ME: Intercultural Press. Collection of articles on IC training theory. For readers who already have a basic grasp of IC issues and are looking for deeper understanding. (Don Snow)

Saville-Troike, M.  (1989). Ethnography of communication: An introduction (2nd ed.).  Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. Concerned about how and why language is used and how its use varies in different cultures; has many helpful examples from many languages and cultures. (Don Dorr)

Seelye, H. N. (1993).  Teaching culture: Strategies for intercultural communication  (3rd ed.).  Lincolnwood, IL: National Textbook. A standard reference for teachers of both ESL and foreign languages; it includes curricular goal development, exercises, and activities related to the meaningful inclusion of culture with language teaching. Intended for American teachers teaching American students about other cultures, but the ideas are applicable to other situations. (Don Snow)

Seelye, N. (Ed.). (1996). Experiential activities for intercultural learning (Vol.1). Yarmouth, ME: Intercultural Press. Clear, step-by-step descriptions of 32 exercises including some by big names in the IC field. Designed for training Americans, but adaptable to ESL audiences. Includes re-entry shock, rhetorical styles and other important topics not found in similar collections. (Piper McNulty)

Storti, C. (1994). Cross-cultural dialogues: 74 brief encounters with cultural difference. Yarmouth, ME: Intercultural Press. Contains 74 dialogues between people of different cultures, each including some kind of culture-based misunderstanding. These exercises are intended for Americans preparing for IC interaction, but the exercises can serve as a models for constructing similar exercises for ESL/EFL classes. (Don Snow)

Intercultural Communication and Language Teaching

Buckley, L.C. (2000). A framework for understanding crosscultural issues in the English as a second language classroom.  In The CATESOL Journal, 12:1. A clear, brief summary of values contrast research to date, and the uses of such research in the ESL classroom. One of six articles on IC and ESL. (Piper McNulty)

Burwitz-Melzer, E. (2001). Teaching intercultural communicative competence through literature. In M. Byram, A. Nichols and D. Stevens, (Eds.), Developing intercultural competence in practice (pp. 29-43). Tonawanda, NY: Multilingual Matters. Describes a very interesting project in which high school students write dialogs for scenes described in Jimenez' The circuit, giving voice to Mexican American values and perspectives. (Piper McNulty)

Byram, M. Nichols, A. & Stevens, D. (2001). Introduction. In M. Byram, A. Nichols and D. Stevens, (Eds.), Developing intercultural competence in practice. Tonawanda, NY: Multilingual Matters. Detailed descriptions of a variety of well thought out, thorough activities developing IC awareness and skills in foreign language students – applicable to ESL. High school focus. (Piper McNulty)

Byrd, P. (Ed.) (1986).Teaching across cultures in the university ESL program (pp. 51-62).  Washington DC: NAFSA. Good collection of articles on IC in university ESL programs. A must if you teach at this level. (Piper McNulty)

Fantini, A. (Ed.). (1997). New ways in teaching culture. Alexandria, VA: TESOL.  (Teacher reference.) A collection of 50 IC activities for the ESL classroom, each clearly described. Focuses on knowledge and awareness competence. A few (in Parts III and V) elicit C2 communication styles practice. Has good annotated bibliography. (Piper McNulty)

Gaston, J. (1984). Cultural awareness teaching techniques. Brattleboro, VT: Pro Lingua Associates. (Teacher reference.) Contains introductory chapters on IC and 20 activities for building cultural awareness. For English classes in which students come from different cultural backgrounds. (Don Snow)

Genzel, R., Cummings, M.G. (1994). Culturally speaking, 2nd ed. Boston, MA: Heinle and Heinle. Workbook style intermediate level ESL text of short readings and discussion prompts, covering daily life functions such as building friendships, dating, shopping and using the telephone. Eurocentric focus, but with prompts to discuss C1 norms. (Piper McNulty)

Gregg, J. Y. (1993). Communication and culture: A reading-writing text. 4th ed. Boston, MA: Heinle and Heinle.  (Out of print but purchased used 3/2003 via Amazon). College and CC level IC reader for ESL students. Focus is at the interpersonal level. Some mention of other cultures and countries, but much focus on US. Fairly innocuous: No chapters on history, identity, power and privilege, stereotyping, transitions, conflict, or work, but does include chapters on space, time, economics, art, context, gender roles, emotion and pluralism in the Caribbean. (Piper McNulty)

Hinkel, E. (Ed.). (1999). Culture in second language teaching and learning. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (Teacher reference.) Collection of scholarly articles on various aspects of culture in language teaching. (Don Snow)

Lange, D., Klee, C., Paige, R. M. & Yershova, Y. (1998) Culture as the Core: Interdisciplinary perspectives on culture teaching and learning in the second language curriculum. CARLA Working Paper #11.  Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota. 8 essays by Saville-Troike, Kramsch, Damen and others. Great for teacher education. (Piper McNulty)

Levine, D. & Adelman, M. ( 1993). Beyond Language:  Cross-Cultural Communication, 2nd ed. Pearson Education.  An IC text (primarily a reader) for advanced ESL students in a US environment. Many discussion prompts, and communication activities in each unit. (Piper McNulty)

Levine, D., Baxter, J. & McNulty, P. (1987). The culture puzzle: Cross-cultural communication for English as a second language. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall Regents (now Pearson Education). (ESL textbook.) Contains integrated skill activities for building IC competence. (Don Snow)

Murphey, A. (1991). Cultural encounters in the USA: Cross-cultural dialogues and mini-dramas. Chicag National Textbook Company. (ESL textbook.) Contains 52 cultural assimilator exercises for adult ESL classrooms in the US. (Don Snow)

Valdes, J. M. (Ed.) (1986).  Culture bound: Bridging the culture gap in language teaching (20-29).  New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. Very good summaries of key IC issues relevant to TESL If you can only afford one IC reference as a language teacher, I recommend this one. (Piper McNulty)

Woodin, J.  (2001). Tandem learning as an intercultural activity. In M. Byram, A. Nichols and D. Stevens, (Eds.), Developing intercultural competence in practice (pp. 189-202). Tonawanda, NY: Multilingual Matters. Detailed description of IC learning activities for student partners in an IEP program. (Piper McNulty)

Culture Teaching and Learning

Damen, L. (1987). Culture learning: The fifth dimension in the language classroom. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley Publishing Co. Comprehensive study, focused on ESL T's. A must for teacher educators. Includes much information on textbook types and purposes and brief descriptions of 17 categories of class activities. Out of print, but recently found as a used book via Amazon. (Piper McNulty)

Hess, D. (1997). Studying abroad/learning abroad. Yarmouth, M: Intercultural Press. (Workbook format.) A guide to culture study for those living in the culture they are studying. This is the abridged edition of Hess's The whole world guide to culture learning. (Don Snow)

Kramsch, C. (1993). Context and culture in language teaching. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. Sophisticated look at the ideal versus the reality of teaching language and culture, w/ a critical look at American language and culture teaching theories from a European perspective. (Piper McNulty)

Moran, P. (2001). Teaching culture: Perspectives in practice. Boston: Heinle and Heinle. A practical analysis of culture teaching; lots of examples. (Don Snow)

Tomalin, B. & Stempleski, S. (1993). Cultural awareness. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. Alternative title: Culture as a language learning resource. Eurocentric (w/ some built-in opportunities for C1 sharing), but a good collection of simple, clear knowledge and awareness focused exercises, some w/ potential for adaptation for communication skill building. Does not address issues of power inequities, history, culture shock, so look elsewhere for these. (Piper McNulty)

Culture and Cross-Cultural Adaptation

Agar, M. (1994). Language shock: Understanding the culture of conversation.  New York, NY: William Morrow and Co. Very readable argument that there is no separating language and culture. (Piper McNulty)

Brake, T. & Walker, D. (1994).  Doing business internationally: The workbook to Cross-Cultural Success. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Training Press. Good source for most of the key values terminology from the most well known, respected studies including Hofstede, Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck etc. (Piper McNulty)

Cornes, A. (2004). Culture from the Inside Out. Yarmouth, Maine: Intercultural Press. A more psychological, individualized approach to the process of understanding/adapting to another culture. Geared primarily for the adult professional and family. For native speakers of English but parts can be useful to help ESL students. (Rebekah Muir)

Germer, L. (1996). 47% American: Coping with cultural issues in middle school. Studio City, CA: JAG Publications. 26 short stores with accompanying workbook-style discussion and writing activities, at a high beginner level. Stories highlight culture shock experiences of immigrants to the US.  Deals with real life concerns such as having to translate for parents, fights, "My little brother is too American", and "Why am I stuck in ESL?". Excellent insight into the mind of a generation 1.5'er. Potentially useful for parents of such students as well. (Piper McNulty)

Hoffman, E. (1989). Lost in translation: A life in a new language. New York, NY: Penguin Books. Of the over 40 autobiographies / semi autobiographical novels of immigrants which I have read, Hoffman's explores the challenge of transition the most eloquently and in by far the greatest depth. A superb author. If you need to understand the challenges of bilingualism and biculturalism, this is it! (Piper McNulty)

Hofstede, G. (1984). Culture's consequences (abridged ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. This seminal work was the first to systematically analyze many of the basic concepts used now in describing cultural differences. (Don Snow)

Lebedko, M. (2002). Time as a Cognitive Dominant of Culture: Comparing American and Russian Temporal Conceptospheres. Vladivostok: Far Eastern State University Press. The book explores the cultural loading of time perception. Both verbal and nonverbal constituents of time concepts are studied from a cognitive approach, which enabled the author to distinguish the typology of temporal concepts in American and Russian cognitive systems and show cognitive differences in the cultures under study. (Victoria Tuzlukova)

Nelson, G.  (2000). Individualism-collectivism and power distance: Applications for the English as a second language classroom..  In The CATESOL Journal, 12:1 (p. 49-52). A clear, brief summary of values contrast research to date, and the uses of such research in the ESL classroom. One of six articles on IC and ESL. (Piper McNulty)

Triandis, H. (1994). Culture and social behavior. New York: McGraw-Hill. An introduction to the issues of culture and cultural difference. Excellent reader-friendly summation of the state of the field; points are well illustrated with examples. (Don Snow)

Triandis, H. (1995). Individualism and collectivism. Boulder, CO: Westview Press. While focusing specifically on differences between collectivist and individualist cultures, this book incidentally serves as a good primer on cultural difference in general. (Don Snow)

Culture of English-Speaking Countries

Althen, G. 1988. American ways: A guide for foreigners in the United States. (Intercultural Press) While this brief and readable introduction to US life and culture is intended for students, it is also a good first overview for teachers. (Don Snow)

Bellah, R. N.,  Madsen, R., Sullivan, W. M., Swidler, A., & Tipton, S. M.  (1996). Habits of the heart: Individualism and commitment in American life (2nd ed.). Berkeley: University of California Press. Becoming a "classic" on the study of American values, particularly individualism and the need for community and mutual commitment. (Don Snow)

Bellah, R. N., Madsen, R., Sullivan, W. M., Swidler, A. & Tipton, S. M.  (1991). The good society.  New York: Vintage. Underlines the importance of American social institutions and proposes ways to revitalize our political, economic, educational, and religious bodies. (Don Snow)

Datesman, M.K., Crandall, J. & Kearny, E. (1997). The American ways, 2nd ed.  Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall Regents. (ESL reader.) Chapter 2 provides an intermediate level summary of six traditional American values, with acknowledgement that the times, they are a changin'. Provides a good kick off for discussion of student observations of Americans and value-behavior correlations. Emphasizes dialectics, and that bane of sojourners, self reliance. (Piper McNulty)

Hirsch, E. (1988). Cultural literacy: What every American needs to know. New York: Vintage Books. This controversial book effectively makes the point that shared knowledge is one of the important building blocks of culture. (Don Snow)

Johnson, A. G. (2001). Privilege, power and difference. Mountain View, CA: Mayfield. An excellent and highly readable look at how individualism, privilege and power keep many Americans from overcoming their tendency to discriminate against others. (Piper McNulty)

Lipset, S. 1996. American exceptionalism: A double-edged sword. New York: W. W. Norton. Interesting study of the many ways in which the culture of the US is distinctive. (Don Snow)

Renwick, G. W.  (1991).  A fair go for all: Australian/American interactions.  Yarmouth, ME: Intercultural Press. A good, brief sample of the culture-specific "Interact Series" from Intercultural Press; also an example of the comparative analysis approach to learning about cultures—very insightful about American cultural patterns. (Don Dorr)

Sharpe, P. J.  (1984). Talking with Americans: Conversation and friendship strategies for learners of English. Boston: Little, Brown. One of the few ethnographic sources for values, beliefs, conversation and interaction strategies of Americans for the benefit of non-native speakers. (Don Dorr)

Stewart, E. & Bennett, M. (1991). American cultural patterns: A cross-cultural perspective. Yarmouth, ME: Intercultural Press. Probably the best single introduction to US cultural patterns; also useful as a primer on cognitive culture in general. (Don Snow)

Zhukova, I. & Lebedko, M. (1999). American Quilt: A Reference Book on American Culture. Vladivostok: Far Eastern State University Press. With illustrations, maps, and over 6,5000 entries, thi sbook was designed for students of American Studies with a strong focus on "little-c" culture as it is experienced on a practical level. It highlights concepts that describe behavior, values, customs, material goods, etc., which are crucial for cross-cultural communication. (Victoria Tuzlukova)

New Books (no annotation written so far)

Snow, D. (2004). Encounters with Westerners: Improving Skills in English and Intercultural Communication. Shanghai: Shanghai Foreign Language Education Press. (Both student textbook and teacher version.)

Web Sites

The Intercultural Press: http://interculturalpress.com

Sage Publications:  http://www.sagepub.com

Multilingual Matters: http://www.multilingual-matters.com

Professional Organizations


ACTFL (American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages) www.actfl.org

IAIR (International Academy for Intercultural Research) www.watervalley.net/users/academy/default.html

IACCP (International Association for Cross-Cultural Psychology) www.iaccp.org

IATEFL (International Association of Teachers of English as a Foreign Language) www.iatefl.org

ICA (International Communication Association) www.icahdq.org

IPrA (International Pragmatics Association) webhost.ua.ac.be/ipra/

NCA (National Communication Association) www.natcom.org

SIETAR (Society for International Education, Training, and Research) www.sietar.org, has local chapters such as SIETAR Houston, which offers lecture series

SCCR (Society for Cross-Cultural Research), www.fit.edu/CampusLife/clubs-org/sccr/index.html

WSCA (Western States Communication Association), an affiliate of NCA (National Communication Association). Comments: Good for Speech/Communications teachers. Affiliates have SIGS for various topics including IC. Conferences can be expensive (Piper McNulty)

NCORE (National Conference on Race and Ethnicity in American Higher Education) http://ncore.occe.ou.edu/. Comment: Many from the diversity and ethnic studies fields seem to go to this conference (Piper McNulty)

Training Programs:

SIIC (The Summer Institute for Intercultural Communication), Portland, Oregon; three weeks of professional workshops with a graduate credit option