Volume 24:2 (September 2005)

by User Not Found | 10/20/2011

In This Issue...

  • Leadership Updates
    • Letter From the Chair
    • The HEIS Web Site: New Look, New Location
  • Articles
    • Educating Our Colleagues
    • Placement Testing for College ESL Students: Nuisance or Necessity?
    • Specialization in Teaching ESL in Higher Education at New Jersey City University
    • Book Review: Strategies for Empirical Research in Writing
    • Book Review: Second Language Writing
  • Announcements and Information
    • Nominations Now Open for 2006–07!
    • Community College Roundtable Expresses Need For Interest Section
    • A New TESOL Membership Category: Your Input Requested
    • Member Stories: The 2005 Recipient of The Ruth Crymes TESOL Fellowship for Graduate Study
  • About This Community
    • About the ESL in Higher Education Interest Section

Leadership Updates

Letter From the Chair

Guy Kellogg, HEIS Chair, 2005-06, gkellogg@hawaii.edu

Greetings to all Higher Education Interest Section (HEIS) members.

I would like to thank all of you who were able to participate in our open business meetings and discussions in San Antonio. On the basis of your excellent feedback during those meetings, we have been able to both hone our proposal-reading practices and identify themes for our Academic Session and InterSections that are appropriate to higher education. I hope that these discussions will continue on our e-list at http://lists.tesol.org/read/?forum=heis-l. If you are not already signed up, be sure to do so at http://www.tesol.org/getconnected.

New and Retiring HEIS Steering Committee Members

Welcome the HEIS' new steering committee members for 2005-06:
· Chair-elect: Soonhyang Kim 
· Assistant Chair: Alison Evans 
· Secretary:  Miles Witt
· Member-at-Large (until 2008): Kathryn Good

Soonhyang Kim, kim.1259@osu.edu, is a PhD candidate in foreign and second language education at The Ohio State University (OSU), Columbus, Ohio, USA. She has been working as a teaching consultant at the universitywide teaching and learning support unit at OSU for several years, with a special emphasis on supporting all instructors with teaching and learning issues concerning international students. Her research interests include non-native-English-speaking professional issues and empowerment of ESL students in subject-matter classrooms. Soonhyang has led several professional development workshops for university ESL teachers to understand mainstream classroom environments.

Alison Evans, aevans@uoregon.edu, is a senior instructor at the University of Oregon's American English Institute, where she has taught academic English to matriculated students since 1995. She has also taught at the Asian Institute of Technology in Bangkok, Thailand, the International School Bangkok, and the Swiss-AIT-Vietnam Management Development Program in Ho Chi Minh City. Alison has been an active member of ORTESOL, serving on the board as higher ed SIG chair for two years and workshop coordinator for 2 years.

Miles D. Witt, mdwitt2@lycos.com, has 30 years' experience in TESL/TEFL education in Africa, the Middle East, Europe, and the USA, most at the college or university level.  He was educated at Moravian College in Pennsylvania and received his MA at Heidelberg, Germany.  Miles did postgraduate work at the University of Heidelberg and at Bell College, Essex/UK.  He received a Diploma TEFL Royal Society of Arts, Cambridge, and was awarded a doctorate in TEFL education from Widener University in Pennsylvania.

Kathryn Good, Kathryn_Good@brown.edu, is the director of international students and programs at Brown University.  In this role, she leads ESL, TESOL, and undergraduate study abroad programs in summer and continuing studies. In addition to her administrative experience, Kathryn has nearly 15 years of teaching experience in ESL classrooms at all grade levels and at the university level in teacher-preparation programs and in language and linguistics courses for graduate and undergraduate students. She serves the state of Rhode Island by volunteering with the Governor's Task Force for Adult Education and VERA (voter education reform aimed at increasing voter participation within the ESOL and adult learner population). Kathryn holds a master's degree from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and is a PhD student in applied linguistics at Boston University. Her research focuses on first language transfer in adult learners of a second language. Kathryn is a regular presenter at TESOL and MATSOL, her regional affiliate.

Please also join me in a big round of thanks to the retiring members who have devoted so much of their time and energy to serving our IS:
· Deborah Crusan, Immediate Past Chair
· Li-Lee Tunceren, Assistant Chair
· Laurie Berry, Secretary
· Diane Belcher, Member-at-Large

New and Retiring HEIS Officers

HEIS is also proud to welcome three new officers:
· Maria Parker, Newsletter co-editor
· Yi Xu, E-list moderator
· Ishbel Galloway, HEIS Web Site Manager

Maria Parker, mgparker@duke.edu, is the director of the English for international students program at Duke University in Durham, NC, where she currently teaches advanced academic writing and academic presentations courses. Maria's current research interests include pronunciation, academic writing, and vocabulary acquisition.

Yi Xu, xuyi@email.arizona.edu, is a recent MA graduate and now a PhD student in second language acquisition at the University of Arizona. Yi has extensive experience in the areas of CALL, ESL/EFL reading and writing, and L2 analysis and research.

Ishbel Galloway, igallowa@sfu.ca, is a lecturer in EAP at Simon Fraser University (SFU) in Vancouver. She became interested in using technology in her teaching in Japan in the mid-90s and has been making web pages since then. She manages the web page for her program at SFU (http://www.sfu.ca/ebp/acwrite) using Dreamweaver and will have the opportunity to host the HEIS site and give it a bit of a facelift. You can see a very informative page she did for TESOL's Electronic Village at http://www.sfu.ca/~igallowa/blogging.

On behalf of HEIS members past and present, I would like to take this opportunity to offer thanks to Margi Wald for the amazing job she has done over the past years serving TESOL and HEIS. Margi is the outgoing newsletter editor and e-list moderator, and has graciously offered to help transition both Maria and Yi to their respective duties.

I would also like to extend, again on behalf of all HEIS members, heartfelt thanks to Carol Wilson-Duffy for her past years of support to the HEIS Web site. Carol has seen the site go through many changes, and has graciously offered to assist Ishbel in transitioning to-well, a Web site in transition! Many thanks Carol for getting us this far-and for providing valuable feedback about how the Web site may be managed in the future.

Please now join me in welcoming Maria Parker, Yi Xu, and Ishbel Galloway to their respective duties! We are indeed fortunate to have you all aboard.

Finally, I would like to thank all HEIS members who expressed interest in these positions. HEIS is indeed fortunate to have many talented and dedicated members.

TESOL 2006

Many thanks to those of you who read proposals for HEIS this year. A record  80 members signed up to read proposals, 66 of whom confirmed and 52 of whom completed the task of reading their assigned allotment of the total 255 proposals. HEIS was allotted 53 one-hour slots at the upcoming convention in Tampa, Florida, USA, which will be filled with the accepted proposals in the following categories: workshops, colloquia, papers, reports, and demonstrations.
Our Academic Sessions and Intersections are currently in process. We have already identified several excellent speakers to present on a variety of topics identified during our business meetings in San Antonio, namely plagiarism, extensive reading, and generation 1.5 / heritage language learners. New in 2006 is the format of the Academic Session itself; HEIS has opted to organize a 1-hour and 45-minute session on plagiarism in the context of academic writing, and a second 45-minute session on extensive reading. This new flexible time format will allow us to explore more than one topic relevant to higher education. Official invitations must come from TESOL's Central Office, so please stay tuned as the convention dates draw nearer.
I look forward to seeing as many of you as possible at TESOL in Tampa next spring. In the meanwhile, please post your questions or comments on our e-list.

Best regards,


The HEIS Web Site: New Look, New Location

The HEIS web page has moved.
Please bookmark our new location: http://www.sfu.ca/heis.
Webmaster Ishbel Galloway is currently working on a new look for the HEIS Web site. Once the design is complete, she'll be asking for input regarding what roles the site should play for members and what information we should list. Be sure to check the site in mid-September, and e-mail Ishbel at igallowa@sfu.ca with any content suggestions. And be on the lookout for further announcements about the Web site redesign on the HEIS e-list.


Educating Our Colleagues

Sheryl Slocum, Sheryl.Slocum@alverno.edu

College professors seldom have specific preparation for classroom teaching. Almost none have had the extensive training in learning theory and pedagogy that elementary and secondary teachers receive, or that ESL/EFL instructors receive in their language acquisition and methodology courses. After a few semesters of on-the-job training, most professors can handle run-of-the-mill academic situations, but when facing the out-of-the-ordinary, such as an ESL student, college faculty are often at a loss. How should they mark a paper that "glaringly" misuses articles and verb tenses; how should they respond when an international student makes an "incomprehensible" presentation or "refuses" to participate in class discussions?

It is our job as ESL/EFL professionals to help our students by educating our colleagues.  There are many ways to do this: one-on-one conversations with faculty about particular students in their classes, short presentations at department meetings, brown-bag informational sessions, and so forth.  I have done all of the above. Also, thanks to an inspiration sparked by a HEIS presentation at TESOL, I have published an ESL Tip in our weekly faculty/staff newsletter for the past 6 years. 

When I first proposed doing this, my supervisor advised me to keep the tips short, practical, and positive. Ostensibly, I focus on what faculty and staff can do to increase students' chances of success, but, unobtrusively, I am also educating them about second language learners. Some tips are merely informative. For example, at the beginning of each semester I list the campus resources available to ESL students; later in the semester I list the first languages of all the students in the ESL program. Most tips, though, are advocacy in the guise of helpful advice. I've written about whether to allow the use of bilingual dictionaries during exams, what to tackle first when evaluating a paper that seems full of errors, and how to help new international students get the most out of lectures. And, to assure you that sustaining a mini-column in a weekly newsletter is less daunting than it seems, I will let you in on a secret: after a graceful retirement of a semester or two, my favorite tips appear again-and again.

The strategy seems to have worked. The compliments and thank you's I have received would matter little if I were still having to advocate strongly about the same issues every year. But I detect a difference in the questions and complaints I get. Seldom now do I get the age-old panic call, "What do I do?  So-and-so can't write!" Instead, I get the tougher, more realistic questions such as, "When do I comment on word order problems, and what can I say to help?" Of course, there are always new staff and faculty to educate, and we will always have some colleagues who feel personally called to act as guardians of the so-called purity of the English language. 

Several years ago, a colleague suggested, "Why don't you gather all of your ESL Tips into a book?"  The suggestion seemed reasonable, and the school agreed to publish it. With the help of a summer fellowship and the school's copy editor, I gathered the tips, organized them, checked references, and edited it for uniformity of style, and that fall (2003), ESL Strategies was published. We distribute the slender booklet to all new and adjunct faculty, to education majors, and to visitors who come to see how our college works. 

You, too, can do the same thing for your ESL students. All it takes is a thick file folder for saving snippets that might make good tips, an institutional venue, and a half an hour a week for composing. In several years, you, too, can produce a booklet to distribute to admiring multitudes. There is one drawback, though. Producing the booklet does not get you off the hook. There are still more new faculty. There are still more new challenges. And our field is full of new insights and discoveries. You may be writing ESL tips for a long time to come.

Copies of ESL Strategies: Facilitating Learning for Students Who Speak English as a Second Language may be obtained for $5.00 plus S&H by e-mailinginstitute@alverno.edu or by visiting http://www.alverno.edu/for_educators/publications.html.

Slocum, S. (2003). ESL strategies: Facilitating learning for students who speak English as a second language. Milwaukee, WI: Alverno College Institute.

Sheryl Slocum has been the ESL coordinator at Alverno College in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, for over 9 years.  She is also a columnist for TESOL's Essential Teacher (visit http://www.tesol.org/s_tesol/seccss.asp?CID=206&DID=1676 to read the magazine).

Placement Testing for College ESL Students: Nuisance or Necessity?

Kristen di Gennaro, kdigennaro@pace.edu

In June 2005, I posted some questions about placement testing for college ESL students on the TESOL HEIS e-list. The background to my question explained that the English department where I teach (a small private college in New York City) would like to eliminate the placement testing process for new students. (Apparently, the idea of asking students to sit for an exam or two during new-student orientation is coming under fire as not being student-friendly.) And with the new SAT test offering a writing component, university administrators seem to think that a student's SAT score can serve the same purpose as a placement test and save the university money because it would not have to pay raters to read and score placement tests during the summer. Thus, we have been under pressure to eliminate placement testing for all incoming students.

For the native-speaking population, eliminating placement testing is easier because there are only two different levels at which students may start taking English courses for graduation. For our ESL students, however, the situation is a lot more complex because we have six different levels (four prefreshman English plus ESL equivalents for the two core courses needed for graduation). The problem is compounded by the fact most of our ESL population is really Generation 1.5, so they do not self-identify as ESL learners, but often when we look at their writing, it turns out to be marked with ESL characteristics, leading us to believe they would best be served by our TESOL-trained faculty.

As our ESL population is relatively large but still only a fraction of the total student population (perhaps 15%), those outside of ESL are wondering why we should test everyone just to identify this "small" group. They have suggested that, instead of placement testing during orientation, we place everyone in the first-year non-ESL English course, English 110, and on the first day of class, ask everyone to write an in-class essay and then move them to more appropriate sections, if necessary. One reason I do not like this solution is that it would create an administrative nightmare during the first week or two of classes, as we would have to read all the exams, evaluate the students' writing, and perhaps change schedules for a large number of students. The main reason I do not like this option, however, is the effect it could have on students who thought they were in one level and are then told, after classes have begun, that they are in a different-perhaps lower-level, and that they may even have to change their entire schedules to accommodate the different level. This, to me, is much less student-friendly than testing students during orientation.

My specific questions to the e-list were as follows: Is anyone experiencing a similar situation? If so, how has your institution responded? Is there any way to place ESL students fairly and accurately without an actual writing sample? Is there any procedure that would help us identify potential ESL students and test these students only? Or do I need to continue to insist on placement testing for all students in order to identify and place ESL students?

I received eight responses from people at a variety of institutions, from New York to Hawaii. One respondent suggested we ask students to take the TOEFL exam, as this score might provide us with information we need to place students. However, as these students are not mainly international students and do not identify with recently arrived nonnative speakers, asking them to take the TOEFL exam is almost the same as asking our native-speaking freshmen to take the TOEFL.

More than one respondent said that they require students who may need additional writing assistance, as determined by ACT/SAT scores or high school GPAs, to take a placement test. I think this idea is workable, but only if the cutoff for not testing is set high enough that the majority of students are still tested. I'm afraid, however, that the administration would soon catch on and approach us about changing criteria in order to test fewer students. In fact, this was the temporary solution we had implemented at my school. Though I certainly prefer this method to no testing, it puts us in the difficult position of trying to convince the administration that the SAT is not an appropriate placement tool at the same time that we use SAT scores for distinguishing good writers from those who may need additional help.

One person explained how it might be possible to use additional information about each student, such as L1, educational background, place of residence, and other related information, to identify only those students who need to be tested. I think this could work, but I also wonder if it might stigmatize the nonnative immigrant and bilingual students from their peers. And, I hate to admit it, but I also doubt that we have the degree of coordination needed between the admissions, advising, and the English departments to make this sorting-out process work.

Another suggestion was to implement a freshman seminar program to help students get through their English classes. Actually, we already have this type of program for all freshmen to help them negotiate their first college year in general, and a few times we have actually been able to create groups according to ESL needs. Once again, the only way we were able to identify certain students as having ESL needs was through the writing placement test. Furthermore, the ESL courses through the English department are writing workshops, meeting 4 hours a week, and a one-credit freshman seminar would probably not give students enough practice to greatly improve their skills.

Two responses, though not offering solutions, were extremely helpful by validating the reasons for my question in the first place. One person stated simply, "a writing sample is indispensable for putting ESL students into appropriate classes because it tests a productive skill." Another raised an excellent point: "I'm wondering why English faculty won't use a writing sample to place native speakers of English into English classes. That to me does not make sense."

I can conclude with an update of the placement-testing situation at my school. As of now, we have convinced the university administration that SAT scores are not useful for placement purposes and that we really need to see students' writing in order to identify which students might be better served by our ESL sections. The solution that has been accepted is to require all new freshmen to complete a writing sample when they come in for orientation, and we will use this sample to identify ESL writers and make decisions about their placement. (All native speakers will submit a writing sample but go directly into English 110 unless they request an evaluation to test out.) In other words, we have managed to hang on to the placement test by renaming it a writing sample.

Many thanks to everyone who contributed to this summary by sending me your comments and suggestions. I hope this summary encourages us to continue the discussion on the HEIS e-list, as this issue seems to keep coming up. If you have any specific advice, please feel free to e-mail me directly atkdigennaro@pace.edu.

Kristen di Gennaro is director of ESL at Pace University's English Department in New York and a doctoral candidate at Teachers College, Columbia University. Her research interests include writing pedagogy and assessment, with a particular interest in placement-testing issues.

Specialization in Teaching ESL in Higher Education at New Jersey City University

A three-course specialization in the teaching of ESL in higher education is now available at New Jersey City University. The specialization was created under the fiscal year 2003 Education of Language Minority Students Grant of the New Jersey Commission on Higher Education and in response to the growing need to prepare ESL teachers for careers in community colleges and other postsecondary institutions. Included in the curriculum, which we (Dr. Vesna Radanovic-Kocic and Dr. Clyde Coreil) wrote, is material especially designed for the growing 1.5 Generation.


Where the New Specialization Fits

The specialization, entitled Teaching ESL in Higher Education, constitutes an elective part of the program for the masters in teaching ESL in the department of multicultural education. The specialization consists of a sequence of three courses which can be taken either in addition to 42 required credits or within 15 elective credits included in the requirements. Thus, no additional coursework is required.


Profitable Content

The existing curriculum prepares candidates for teaching at the P-12 level. Many of our students have the opportunity to teach ESL to adults, either through evening adult programs offered in public schools and community centers, as adjuncts at different community colleges, or in numerous private ESL schools in the area. They previously expressed frustration that most of our methods courses did not address the needs of adult learners or adult pedagogy. On the basis of interviews with these students and an in-depth analysis of the program, we identified areas that would be profitably covered in the new specialization: (1) relevant aspects of the U.S. culture and strategies for transmitting them to ESL students, (2) analysis of different styles, strategies, and methods in college ESL teaching as well as of existing resources, and (3) a practicum.


Description of the Courses

The three new courses created were Teaching ESL in Higher Education; Teaching the Culture of the USA to ESL Students in Higher Education; and Fieldwork in ESL Programs for College Students.


Teaching ESL in Higher Education

This course builds on the knowledge acquired through other courses in the graduate program that are geared toward P-12 teachers. The purpose of the course is to identify characteristics of various segments of the college ESL student population and their pedagogical needs. Much of the content is taught contrastively by outlining differences between adult learners and younger learners. Candidates explore the newest theoretical positions on issues of grammar instruction, academic vocabulary, critical reading of academic texts, and academic writing. In addition to this theoretical aspect, students design lesson plans and activities for each aspect of the course and produce a portfolio of instructional strategies for teaching ESL in higher education. They also compile an annotated bibliography of resources for teaching various aspects of the ESL in higher education.


Teaching the Culture of the USA to ESL Students in Higher Education

This course prepares candidates to teach English as a unique expression of American culture. The objectives of the course are to understand the relation between language and culture; identify levels of language where the interdependence between language and culture is the most obvious; identify aspects of American culture that would be useful to English language learners at the postsecondary level (main elements in the American personality and character, the milieu of American university campus, literary allusions, folk tales, legends, heroes); identify typical American cultural concepts (suburbia, den mother, baby boomer, diner, prom, cheer leader, to mention just a few); identify unique pragmatic situations; analyze idioms and other fixed phrases as a way into culture and history; and define major characteristics of academic writing as a unique dialect of American English. Students select one of the elements of the communicative competence model (vocabulary, conversation analysis, academic writing, etc.) and focus on research in that particular area. Their final product is a term paper with an overview of the theoretical background and a lesson in which they share their ideas about teaching these aspects of language in their ESL classes.


Fieldwork in ESL Programs for College Students

This course gives students the opportunity to test this knowledge firsthand in observations and practical training. Students observe classes (between 15 and 20 clock hours) in a variety of settings: our own ESL department, community colleges, private schools, and adult classes. Each visit is followed by a written entry in a reflective journal, in which students describe and analyze the classes they observe with reference to knowledge gained in the other two courses. In addition, students collect and share with other class members interesting samples of student work. They also prepare and deliver a lesson, which is observed and evaluated by the instructor.



We started teaching our first course in 2003, and we are now graduating our first students. The specialization is still at the very early stages of implementation and many—mostly technical—aspects still need to be worked out. The three proposed courses are expected to be approved by the University Senate and included in the permanent course catalogue by the end of the fall 2005 semester. So far we have issued a special certificate to those students who completed all three courses, but in the future we hope to incorporate this information into their transcripts as well.


We have had very positive feedback from everyone involved. Our students now feel better qualified for college teaching (several students who have taught as adjuncts in community colleges expressed informally their appreciation of the courses that addressed problems they regularly encounter in their classrooms). Students who do their fieldwork in various institutions have brought back praise to us for starting this specialization. Finally, the work on creating the specialization has resulted in a welcome proximity of our two departments, and serves as clear evidence that collaboration between ESL and TESL makes for a very healthy and productive relationship. This collaboration between the two departments occurs in various forms: the three courses are taught by faculty from both departments, instructors visit and coteach some of the classes, and our students observe and teach in classes offered in the ESL department.


So far only a small number of students have elected to pursue the specialization, but we hope that with time and with more aggressive advertisement, we will attract more students. Overall, we feel that the specialization has been successful and is gaining a firm place in the course of study at New Jersey City University.


Dr. Vesna Radanovic-Kocic is an assistant professor in the department of multicultural education, New Jersey City University, where she teaches courses in theoretical and applied linguistics. Her research is in second language acquisition, sociolinguistics, and Slavic syntax.


Clyde Coreil holds an MFA in theater from Carnegie Mellon University and a PhD in linguistics from the City University of New York. Much of his creative and academic writing can be found at http://www.clydecoreil.com.



Book Review: Strategies for Empirical Research in Writing

MacNealy, Mary Sue. New York: Longman, 1999.

In the quest for an introductory text on empirical research, Mary Sue MacNealy has produced a contender for anyone working with beginning researchers interested in writing studies and related fields. MacNealy directs her text to novices in empirical research, whether they are undergraduate students working on papers, graduate students completing theses and dissertations, or professionals working in their selected fields. Though Strategies for Empirical Research in Writing sometimes loses sight of groups within this broad range of potential readers-for example, "empirical research" is not clearly defined until chapter three, a potential disservice to novices reading chapter one and trying to understand the importance of empirical research to composition studies-MacNealy's text serves as a helpful overview of empirical research practices.

Early chapters provide an introduction to empirical research in the humanities, placing it in context with theory and lore; contrast empirical research with library-based research; and give readers overviews of classification schemes for empirical research, advantages and disadvantages of such research, and basic terminology for quantitative research. Like Lauer and Asher (1988) before her, MacNealy then devotes individual chapters to specific methodologies, incorporating samples of published research to illustrate research processes. For these examples, she draws predominantly from first language composition studies, with heavy sampling from technical writing and technical communication. TESOL scholars might recognize Ferris's (1994) work on differences in the rhetorical strategies of native and nonnative writers of English, included as an example of rhetorical analysis, but it is the lone representative of research in ESL writing. (Unfortunately, Dana Ferris is misidentified as male and referenced with the pronoun he.)

Unlike Lauer and Asher (1988), MacNealy also includes fictitious examples that at times border on bizarre, presumably in an attempt to make empirical research seem less daunting to novice researchers. Yet most of her selections from published research are just as accessible to readers; adding more of these examples might have enabled MacNealy to better represent the vast range of topics in empirical research in writing. In addition, some chapters would benefit from more contemporary examples of writing research to help readers who are not only new to empirical research but also new to composition studies, such as the undergraduate and masters students included in her audience, gain a clearer perspective of the field's research.

Despite these potential shortcomings, novices will find straightforward introductions to experimental research, meta-analysis, discourse analysis, surveys, focus groups, case studies, and ethnographies, with additional nods to feminist research and teacher research. Each methodology chapter breaks down the research process into advance planning, data collection, and analysis-remaining consistent with MacNealy's description of empirical research as research that is planned in advance with data that is systematically collected and available for analysis by others. Although chapter organizations vary, MacNealy's overview of these research procedures often is accompanied by strategies or tools specific to the given methodology. For example, in a section titled "Tools for Ethnographic Research," MacNealy articulates the importance of interviews, observations, and critical incident forms for ethnographers trying to achieve a rich description.

Even TESOL scholars who are not novices in empirical research may appreciate the brief discussion of teacher research (pp. 243-250), which reminds us that engaging in this type of action research can positively impact our teaching and our students' learning. MacNealy presents ideas for collecting data-including teaching materials, teacher/researcher logs, and reflections-and includes recommendations for involving colleagues and students in the research process. She does not overlook the ethical implications of teacher research, but she remains optimistic about its benefits.

MacNealy's Strategies for Empirical Research in Writing will not replace the other introductory research texts on my bookshelf, but it will serve as a helpful resource as I work with students interested in pursuing research projects. Chapter three, "Overview of Empirical Methodology," provides a valuable introduction to empirical research, and the subsequent chapters would give new researchers a strong foundation for further investigation of specific methodologies. These strong points make MacNealy's text a welcome addition to other introductions to empirical research.

Jessie Moore Kapper, jkapper@elon.edu

Ferris, D. R. (1994). Rhetorical strategies in student persuasive writing: Differences between native and non-native English speakers. Research in the Teaching of English, 28, 45-65.
Lauer, J. M., & Asher, J. W. (1988). Composition research: Empirical designs. New York: Oxford University Press.
MacNealy, M. S. (1999). Strategies for empirical research in writing. New York: Longman.

Jessie Moore Kapper is an assistant professor in the department of English at Elon University. She teaches courses in TESOL and professional writing & rhetoric and conducts research in second language writing.

Book Review: Second Language Writing

Hyland, Ken. Second Language Writing. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 2003.

This text forms part of the Cambridge Language Education Series edited by Jack C. Richards, which aims to use the highest-quality and most recent theory, practice, and research to provide clarification of, and solutions for, problems in language teaching and teacher training in an easy-to-read format. So it is designed for ESOL/EFL or bilingual language educators more than for English teachers who have few students from other languages and cultures. Writing center teachers or those who teach mixed developmental or reading and composition classes may also find this book helpful. Teachers of the process approach or the genre approach to teaching writing will benefit from an update that includes aspects with which they may be less familiar.

If one wants to get a good idea of what second language writing is all about and how to teach it, this book is a good source. Though not all of a more experienced teacher's specific detailed, burning questions may be resolved, the text does cover and combine many different theories and approaches, encouraging a synthesis of all of them. Each chapter begins with its own set of general aims, which the chapter generally fulfills. Chapters one and two are particularly good at bringing together the different ideas about and ways of approaching teaching of writing. Chapter two specifically addresses the difference between the types of problems second language learners have and those faced by writers for whom English is a native language. Chapters three and four are detailed discussions of planning and preparation for teaching a writing class.

Chapter five does a nice job of discussing tasks with particular attention to language scaffolding, and the kinds of exercises associated with it. Chapter six covers the plethora of technologies available for use in writing instruction today. Hyland also manages to creatively add one or two prewriting approaches I had not seen before. Chapter seven is a balanced and careful treatment of the key issues related to students getting feedback on their writing-whether from a peer, a tutor in the writing lab, or the teacher. I found chapter eight to be a good review and update on various issues in written assessments with a particular focus on portfolio assessments. After reading chapter nine, I had a much clearer idea of how I might engage in writing research.

Of particular interest to teacher educators or professionals reading this book for their own development are the reflective questions used several times throughout each chapter to help readers grasp and consider the information previously discussed in the section. The teacher with some experience as well as the beginning teacher may find these questions quite useful at times, such as when they deal with encouraging the reader to think about the implications of the material for their teaching; unfortunately, some questions are rather basic. Also, no attempt is made at the end of the book to summarize or reflect on the sections overall and how they inform one another or a teacher's complete teaching of the subject. However, Hyland does address issues beyond the classroom, including matters related to the writing lab and student support for effective learning, as well as how one can engage in writing research.
Overall, I found the book helpful and engaging. Hyland does not claim to give specialist information but does a good basic job of covering current issues related to second language writing. Preservice and inservice teachers with a modest level of experience as well as teacher trainers may find it helpful. I recommend it for correcting misconceptions and expanding theoretical models of how to teach writing, learning more about electronic resources and arranging student feedback effectively with peers and writing lab helpers, and determining how one might begin research in this area. Perhaps he is not the only or most authoritative source for learning about second language writing, but certainly he is one knowledgeable current voice in this arena.

Robin Poling, pidl@surfbest.net

Robin Poling is an ES/FL educator and member of both TESOL and the Washington State affiliate of TESOL known as WAESOL. She is also a member of the Society for Applied Anthropology.

Announcements and Information

Nominations Now Open for 2006–07!

Sue Lantz Goldhaber, HEIS Nominating Committee Chair, slgqc@aol.com

The time has come to begin the search for new HEIS leaders! Four positions are open for the next election: chair-elect, assistant chair, secretary, and steering committee member-at-large. Any member may nominate a HEIS member for a position, and we also welcome self-nominations. All newly elected leaders of HEIS are expected to attend the annual convention (Tampa Bay in 2006; Seattle in 2007) and must be voting members of HEIS. Election results are announced via the HEIS list and at the open meeting on the Wednesday of the annual convention. Newly elected leaders assume their positions at the close of the conference.

Please read the descriptions for each position and submit nominations for one or more openings. The deadline for nominations is October 15, 2005.

Chair-Elect, Chair, Immediate Past Chair
This position is a 3-year commitment. The chair-elect serves for 1 year in that position, becomes the chair the following year, and then chairs the nominating committee as immediate past chair.

Year 1: At the start of the first year, the new chair-elect attends the steering committee meeting on Tuesday evening of convention week, the business meeting on Wednesday evening, the Saturday morning IS planning breakfast, and the planning meeting held at the conclusion of the conference (e.g., the meeting at Tampa in 2006 to plan for 2007). The chair-elect has primary responsibility for planning the HEIS Academic Session and Discussion Groups for the next conference (2007 in Seattle), choosing the theme of the Academic Session with assistance from the HEIS board and members attending the planning meeting. He or she selects and invites panel members to carry out the theme, and chairs the session. He or she also selects people to conduct up to 12 discussion groups. The chair-elect assists the chair in HEIS affairs during the year and, in the event of the chair's absence, presides at the steering committee meeting, the business meeting, and open meeting.

Year 2: At the following conference (TESOL 2007 in Seattle), the chair-elect participates in the IS leaders workshop on Tuesday, assists the chair at the steering committee and open meetings, oversees the Academic Session, attends the IS Council as an HEIS delegate, attends the Saturday morning IS planning breakfast, and becomes chair as the conference comes to a close. The chair presides over the Saturday planning meeting at the start of his or her term as chair, works with the steering committee during the year, serves as the TESOL link regarding higher education concerns and questions, monitors the HEIS budget, and has primary responsibility for the distribution of proposals for peer review and the ranking of proposals submitted to HEIS. The chair is in charge of the steering committee and open meetings at the conference, attends the IS leadership workshop, and is the primary HEIS delegate to the IS Council.

Year 3: At the close of the term as chair, the chair becomes immediate past chair and serves as nominating committee chair. With suggestions from the HEIS board, the past chair assembles a slate of candidates to run for office, provides that slate to the newsletter editor so that it can be placed in the preconference (February) issue, counts the ballots received, notifies those who have been selected, and sends regrets to those not chosen.

Assistant Chair
The assistant chair is a member of the steering committee and serves for 1 year. The assistant chair focuses on activities that make HEIS visible at the conference. Generally, this involves planning, decorating, and staffing the HEIS booth. The assistant chair serves as the third HEIS delegate to the IS Council, performs other duties as requested by the chair, and is often actively involved in planning other HEIS meetings or sessions at the conference. The assistant chair presides over meetings in the event that both the chair and the chair-elect are temporarily absent. The assistant chair is expected to attend all HEIS meetings at the annual convention.

Steering Committee Member-at-Large
This member serves on the steering committee, which helps shape HEIS policy and plan HEIS meetings and sessions. Three members-at-large serve for 3 years each on a staggered schedule, with one new member elected each year. The member in his or her third year is the senior member. The senior member generally serves as the HEIS alternate delegate to the IS Council and rotates off the steering committee at the conclusion of the conference. The chair, chair-elect, and assistant chair consult with the members-at-large throughout the year and request their input and assistance. Along with the secretary and those three officers, the members-at-large are the voting members of the leadership of HEIS. All members-at-large are expected to attend all HEIS meetings at the annual TESOL convention.

How to Nominate
Help shape the leadership of TESOL! We are especially interested in getting candidates from all sectors of our membership, geographically as well as in terms of 2-year and 4-year institutions, to build a strong ballot for 2006-07. All formal nominations should be sent to Committee Chair Sue Lantz Goldhaber at slgqc@aol.com (+1 718-997-5668, work phone after September 1). Nominations will be passed on to the steering committee for approval. For additional information about the duties and responsibilities of HEIS board members, contact any steering committee member (see contact information in this issue) or the nominating committee chair. 

Community College Roundtable Expresses Need For Interest Section

Craig Machado, CMachado@ncc.commnet.edu

About 40 community college ESL instructors and administrators met at this year's TESOL conference in San Antonio to talk about current issues, including representation within TESOL. The sentiment among the group was that an interest section for community colleges would be a valuable resource because they differ in structure, administration, mission-and often curriculum-from IEP-based 4-year colleges and universities.
Many community college ESL professionals have been very active in the Higher Ed Interest Section (HEIS) of TESOL for some time, despite the above-mentioned differences. Most 4-year colleges and universities have IEP programs that are usually self-funding and cater to international students; on the other hand, community colleges have started some intensive programs but these often are part of English, humanities, or developmental English departments or are standalone programs. Their mandate is to educate a larger spectrum of the English learning community, especially immigrants, who often are part-time students.
Creating a new interest section, such as the one on writing that came before the HEIS general meeting this year, caused much discussion and raised the valid concern of the new interest section drawing talent and contributors away from HEIS. Would a new community college section do likewise?
Given the amount of time and energy needed to create a new interest section, not to mention resistance from some quarters, it seems best at this point to continue the dialog through the HEIS e-list and at next year's TESOL conference. Community college members of HEIS need to be more vocal in their concerns and make sure that enough HEIS-sponsored sessions are offered to address the community college audience. Furthermore, more presentations should be jointly planned and sponsored by members from 2- and 4-year institutions.
Craig Machado is ESL program director at Norwalk Community College[city, state?]. The program was recently honored by NCTE (National Council of Teachers of English) for outstanding work in the area of developmental English.

A New TESOL Membership Category: Your Input Requested

Craig Machado, CMachado@ncc.commnet.edu

We would like your help and ideas about a new TESOL initiative. TESOL has established a 1-year ad hoc committee to study a potential new membership category for teachers working part-time. As a committee member, I would like your response to the following questions.

· Do you think that there should be a special membership category for part-time teachers? How would this proposed category of membership most benefit part-time teachers? (If you think there should not be such a membership category, please give your reasons as well.)

· How would TESOL benefit (or not benefit) from such a membership category? Do you know of any other associations like TESOL that offer a special membership rate to part-timers? What are the names of the groups and their rates?

· Part-time employees work in different situations. For example, A. Some people choose to work part-time.  B. Some people are working multiple part-time jobs. C. Some people work part-time in ESL while teaching other topics or working elsewhere in a full-time position.  D. Some people work part-time in ESL in a nonteaching position. Should any of these groups be excluded from the part-time category?  If yes, why do you think so?

· The basic TESOL membership rate of $75 covers roughly the cost of membership to TESOL. In other words, TESOL may lose money if it reduces membership fees for teachers working part-time. On the other hand, many teachers working part-time cannot afford the relatively high cost of membership. Full-time students pay $30, but they are eligible for this rate for only 5 years. Membership fees for those in low-income countries range between $25 and $40 depending on the delivery of benefits. Eligible retirees pay $51. In your opinion, what would be a fair membership fee for teachers working part-time? Why do you think so?

· Should members belonging to a proposed part-time category have all the privileges of regular basic membership ($75 rate)? Why or why not?

· Does your school, educational organization/institution, or others you know about consider membership in associations part of their staff's professional development? 

Thank you very much for your constructive responses and help.

Editor's Note: Please e-mail responses directly to the author at the e-mail listed above.


Member Stories: The 2005 Recipient of The Ruth Crymes TESOL Fellowship for Graduate Study

The Ruth Crymes TESOL Fellowship for Graduate Study supports recent or current graduate students in the development of projects with direct application to ESOL language classroom instruction. The fellowship consists of a US$1,500 award plus paid registration for the following year's TESOL convention at which the project is presented. The fellowship is available to TESOL members who are, or have been, enrolled within the past year in a TESOL or TEFL graduate program that prepares teachers to teach ESOL. The Ruth Crymes Fellowship Fund was established in memory of TESOL President (1979-80) and TESOL Quarterly Editor Ruth Crymes, who was killed in an airplane crash en route to the 1979 MEXTESOL Conference in Mexico.

Meet the 2005 Recipient
Zuzana Sarikova received her undergraduate degree from the University of Matej Bel in Slovakia. While there, she was selected for a semester-long study at Brighton University in England, where she had her first experience teaching ESL. After graduating with a degree in American and British literature, she spent three semesters at Western State College in Colorado, in the United States, further improving her English language skills. She was then accepted into the MA program and later the PhD program at the University of Utah, in the United States, where she received a graduate fellowship in the humanities. She has presented at two graduate forums, at TESOL, and at ACTFL. Her main research interests lie in L2 writing, especially its pedagogy and assessment.

After Zuzana learned of the award by perusing TESOL's Web site, Zuzana was encouraged to apply for the Ruth Crymes award by her professor, who had known Ruth Crymes and told Zuzana that she would have really enjoyed meeting Professor Crymes. As the 2005 Ruth Crymes TESOL Fellowship for Graduate Study recipient, Zuzana proudly accepted the award at the TESOL convention in San Antonio, Texas, this past March.

Like most award applicants, Zuzana put little faith in being granted the award, but as she truly believed in the value of her project, she decided to apply anyway. After receiving the news that she had been selected, Zuzana was motivated to work even harder on her research. Having received the award has helped Zuzana and her coresearcher come closer to their goal of submitting the project to an academic journal.

Zuzana says that receiving the award has "taught [her to] never assume that one does not have a chance to get an award. Applying, even if your chances are 1%, is better than not applying at all!"

To all those interested in applying to the TESOL Awards and Grants Program, please visit the TESOL Web site at http://www.tesol.org/awards. The application deadline is November 1, 2005. Applications for the Ruth Crymes Fellowship are evaluated in terms of (a) the merit of the graduate study project, (b) reasons for pursuing graduate studies, and (c) financial need. Preference is given to projects with practical classroom applications. The recipient of the award is given $1,000 expected to present the results of the project at a TESOL convention within 3 years of receipt of the award.

About This Community

About the ESL in Higher Education Interest Section

TESOL's ESL in Higher Education advances effective instruction, promotes professional standards and practices, influences and supports policies of TESOL and other associations, determines needs, and considers all other matters relevant to ESL in colleges and universities.

HEIS Community Leader 2005-2006

Chair: Guy R. Kellogg, e-mail gkellogg@hawaii.edu
Chair-Elect: Soonhyang Kim, e-mail soonhyang@hotmail.com
Co-Editor: Margi L. Wald, e-mail mwald@berkeley.edu

Co-Editor: Maria Parker, e-mail mgparker@duke.edu

Discussion E-List: Visit http://www.tesol.org/getconnected to subscribe to HEIS-L, the discussion list for HEIS members, or visithttp://lists.tesol.org/read/?forum=heis-l if already a subscriber.


Web sites: http://llc.msu.edu/elc/heis/ and http://www.tesol.org/heis