## Teaching English Across the Content Areas: Science -- Newton's Three Laws of Motion, The Third Law

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by Bernadette M. López-Fitzsimmons and Shannon Browne | 18 Oct 2017
Resource Description: The unit focuses on Newton's Three Laws of Motion.  This is third lesson in the unit in a twelfth grade physics course.  This lesson focuses on the third law of motion.
In previous lessons, students had learned about the first two laws of motion and their importance in physics.  The target population is twelfth grade intermediate English language proficiency.
Learners/students will be asked to call upon prior knowledge of the previous two Laws of Motion that were introduced in the first and second lessons of this unit. The teacher will explain that today they are going to learn about the Third Law of Motion.
The teacher will ask two learners/students to come of the front of the class. She will give both learners/students a small medicine ball and ask them to roll the balls toward each other so that the balls can hit each other.
Audience: Secondary
Audience Language Proficiency: Intermediate
Duration: 50 minutes ( one class period)
Language Skill: Speaking
Content Area:

Focus Skill:       Speaking (English across the content areas)

Content Area:   Physical Science

Common Core State Standards Addressed:   RST.11-12.2; RST.11-12.4; RST.11-12.8; WHST.11-12.4

Materials and Technology:

Materials:   pen, paper, medicine balls, textbook.

Objective(s):

Language Objective:         Learners/Students will be able to (SWBAT) use sequence words in their oral presentations proving Newton’s Third Law of Motion.

Instructional Objective:  Learners/students will be able to (SWBAT) create an experiment that can be used to prove the Third Law of Motion.

Key Vocabulary:   motion, opposite, equal, reaction, inertia, velocity, acceleration, gravity, force, vectors, friction; sequence words such as first, second, third, next, last, etc.).

Outcome(s):

1. Learners/students will be able to (SWBAT) use prior knowledge to explain the first two Laws of Motion.

2. The learners/students will be able to (SWBAT) discuss what happened to the medicine balls upon impact using sequence words. The students will talk to each other to discuss what the third Law means.

3. Learners/students will be able to (SWBAT) collaborate on several examples of the Third Law in sports.

4. Learners/students will be able to (SWBAT) create an experiment that can be done to prove the Third Law. The procedure will be explained in order using sequence words.

5. Learners/students will  be able to (SWBAT) write the procedure of the experiment using sequence words.  The written procedure will reinforce the linguistic objective which is to use sequence words.

Procedure:

1. The teacher will describe the way the balls rolled toward each other, hit each other.  Upon impact the balls rolled backwards, demonstrating Newton’s Third Law of Motion.

2. The teacher will state that the Third Law of Motion is “For every action, there is an opposite and equal reaction.”    The teacher will ask learners/students to turn and talk about what this Law actually means.

3. The teacher will explain these examples using sequence words.

a.  First, the roller coaster will build pressure.

b.  Next, it will shoot forward.

c.  Then, my body will be pushed back into the seat.

4. The teacher will ask learners/students if they can think of examples found in sports. The teacher will put the learners/students into heterogeneous groups of 3 or 4 and ask them to create an experiment that they could conduct to prove Newton’s Third Law of Motion.

5. The teacher will ask learners/students to briefly explain their experiment using sequence words, such as first, then, last.

6. Students will write the experiment and then present it in appropriate order.

7.  The teacher will call on learners/students to explain what they think the law means.

6. The teacher will provide real life examples of the Third Law of Motion, such as when you are in a car and you brake hard, your body moves forward.  Another example is on a roller coaster; as the coaster jerks forward, you are pushed back.

Assessment:

Assessment

1. Learners/students will use prior knowledge to explain the first two Laws of Motion.

2. The learners/students will discuss what happened to the medicine balls upon impact using sequence words. The students will talk to each other to discuss what the third Law means.

3. Learners/students will work together to come up with examples of the Third Law in sports.

4. Learners/students will create an experiment that can be done to prove the Third Law. The procedure will be explained in order using sequence words.

5. Learners/students will write the procedure of the experiment using sequence words.  The written procedure will reinforce the linguistic objective which is to use sequence words.

Differentiation:
Learners/students will write a science experiment report documenting the outcomes of their experiments.
References: Rovelli, C. (2016). Seven brief lessons in Physics (Tra edition ed.). New York, NY: Riverhead Books.